G343 INDUSTRIAL ENGINE Parallel Operation Caterpillar


Parallel Operation
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1.1. Phase Rotation
2.1. Engine Speed
3.1. Voltage Adjustment
4.1. Starting Single Unit Operation
5.1. Stopping
6.1. Standby Electric Sets

Preparing a generator for parallel operation requires special attention. Before attempting to parallel units for the first time, all units must be checked to be sure the following three conditions are met:

1. Same phase rotation.
2. Same speed capabilities.
3. Same voltage characteristics.

These three conditions may be compared to similar conditions required for engagement of two gears. To mesh as smoothly as possible, two gears must meet the following three conditions:

1. Same direction of rotation.
2. Same rotation speed.
3. The tooth of one segment must fit the root of the engaging segment.

Phase Rotation

The phase rotation must be the same. A set of three light bulbs is used to determine whether the phase rotation of the incoming unit and the phase rotation of the line are the same.

1. Connect the light bulbs between the generator leads and the corresponding line phase, i.e. terminal 1 to line 1 across the open circuit breaker.
2. Start the units to be paralleled and bring them up to speed. As they approach the same speed the lights will start to blink.


SYNCHRONIZING LIGHTS

a. If the lights blink in sequence one of the units is connected backward. To correct this remove generator leads 1 and 3 at the circuit breaker and exchange them. This reverses the direction of phase rotation. Line 2 should always be connected to line 2.

------ WARNING! ------

Never attempt to work on electrically hot wiring. Stop the electric set before rewiring generator leads. Open circuit breakers before working on the equipment which they control.

------WARNING!--------
b. If lights blink in unison the phase rotation of both engines is the same, and condition 1 has been met.

Engine Speed

The speed of units to be paralleled must be the same. Speed refers to the alternating current frequency.

1. Allow each electric set to run under load long enough for the internal temperatures to stabilize (about one hour).
2. Adjust the governor control to give rated frequency at full load.
3. Remove the load and check the high idle speed; it should be approximately 3% above full load speed. If these speeds can not be obtained, contact your AVSpare dealer.
4. For the most consistent results repeat steps 2 and 3. Condition 2 has been met.

Voltage Adjustment

The voltage level and voltage droop adjustments determine the amount of circulating currents between generators. Carefully matched voltage regulator adjustments will reduce the circulating currents. Adjustments to the voltage droop control should be made to give a 2% droop for load of unity power factor (load composed primarily of lighting). Loads of .8 power factor (primarily motors) require a generator voltage droop of about 5%. Voltage droop is expressed as the percentage of voltage change from no load to full load.

1. Remove the exciter-regulator access cover and loosen the locknuts of the voltage level and droop controls and the regulator gain control.
2. Turn the droop control counterclockwise to zero.
3. Run the engine at high idle.
4. Adjust the open circuit voltage level to equal nameplate rated voltage.


DROOP ADJUSTMENT

5. Apply full load and adjust the governor control to the rated full load speed.
6. Adjust the regulator gain control to equal nameplate rated voltage at full speed.
7. Run the electric set at full load until internal temperatures have stabilized (about 1 hour) remove the load and repeat steps 4, 5 and 6.
8. Tighten the locknut on the regulator gain control.
9. With the engine running at high idle, turn the voltage droop clockwise about 1/4 of full range.
10. Readjust the voltage level control until the voltage is about 5% above rated voltage.
11. Apply full load at .8 power factor.

NOTE: If a generator is paralleled with other generators, the voltage droop of each generator must be the same to satisfactorily divide reactive load.

12. Readjust the voltage droop control to get rated voltage with full load at .8 power factor.
13. Repeat steps 10, 11 and 12 until line voltage is equal to nameplate rating at .8 power factor and open circuit voltage is approximately 5% above rated voltage.
14. Tighten the locknuts on all controls and install the access cover. Condition 3 has been met.

Starting Single Unit Operation

1. Make all preliminary engine starting checks.
2. Be sure the main or line circuit breaker is open.
3. Start the engine and allow it to warm up.
4. Close the main circuit breaker.
5. Apply the load. Do not try to apply full load in one move, rather apply the load in increments to maintain system frequency at a constant level.

Stopping

1. Remove the load in increments.
2. Open the circuit breaker.
3. Allow the engine to run for 5 minutes to cool.
4. Stop the engine.

Standby Electric Sets

Most standby units are automatic. They start, pickup the load, run and stop without an operator in attendance. Standby units can not change the governor control setting automatically. The throttle must be preset for the proper operation of that unit. Whenever the set is exercised or operated manually, be sure the throttle setting is correct for automatic operation. Check all switches to see they are properly set: Start Selector Switch in AUTOMATIC position and any Emergency Stop Switches in RUN position.