1674 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Fuel Specifications Caterpillar

Fuel Specifications

Use only distillate fuels (ASTM No. 1 or No. 2 Fuel Oil, or No. 1D or No. 2D Diesel Fuel Oil) with a minimum cetane number of 35. Heavier oil is generally preferable because of its higher energy content. The more expensive premium fuels such as No. 1 fuel oil are not necessary for normal operating conditions. In extreme cold temperature, use No. 1 fuel oil or 1D diesel fuel.

In selecting a fuel, note that distillate fuels are especially desirable because the fuel is heated to a vaporous state and condensed, thus eliminating sediment and residue.

There is considerable variation in the composition of fuels distributed under the No. 2 grade classifications. For desirable engine service it is most important to give special attention to cetane No., water and sediment, pour point, cloud point and sulphur content. USE THE LOWEST PRICE DISTILLATE FUEL WHICH MEETS THE FOLLOWING REQUIREMENTS.

Cetane No. ... 35 minimum

Water and Sediment ... 0.1% maximum

Pour Point ... 10F° (-12C°) below ambient temperature

Cloud Point ... No higher than ambient temperature

Sulphur Content* ... Adjust oil change period

Gravity ... 32-40 A.P.I. at 60°F (15°C)

*See the topic SULPHUR CONTENT.

Cetane No.: This is an indication of a fuel's ignition quality and should not be less than 35 for this engine. For high altitude operation or cold weather starting, a higher cetane number is required.

Water and Sediment: A good clean fuel will contain no more than 0.1% sediment and water. Dirty fuels lead to early filter plugging and in addition can result in the formation of gums and resins reducing filter and engine life.

Pour Point: The pour point of the fuel has no effect on engine performance, as long as the fuel is fluid enough to flow from the fuel tank to the engine. The pour point of the fuel should be at least 10F° (-12C°) below the lowest atmospheric temperature at which the engine must start and operate. In extremely cold temperatures it may be necessary to use No. 1 fuel or No. 1D diesel fuel.

Cloud Point: Cloud point is the temperature at which wax crystals become visible and is generally above the pour point of the fuel. The cloud point should be no higher than the lowest atmospheric temperature at which the engine must start to keep the fuel filter elements from plugging with wax crystals.

Sulphur Content: As sulphur content increases, the crankcase oil change periods should be reduced. Fuel containing .4% or less sulphur content, use normal oil change periods. If the fuel contains .4% to 1.0% sulphur, oil change periods should be reduced to one-half normal time. If the fuel contains more than 1.0% sulphur, oil change periods should be reduced to one-fourth normal time.

Gravity: Gravity is the measurement of heat units in a certain amount of fuel. The heavier the fuel (the lower the number) the more heat units per volume. If a fuel with a higher A.P.I. gravity is used the power produced will be lower. Select fuels with the lower A.P.I. gravity reading.

Some fuel specifications that meet the above requirements are:

ASTM-D396 - No. 1 & No. 2 fuels (burner fuels)

ASTM-D975 - No. 1D & No. 2D diesel fuel oils

BS2869-Class A1 to Class A2 engine fuels

BS2869-Class C & Class D burner fuels

DIN51601-Diesel fuel

DIN51603-EL heating oil

Authorized dealers are familiar with fuels that have given good results in AVSpare Diesel Engines and should be consulted regarding fuel use when abnormal conditions occur.