1674 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Operating Description Caterpillar

Operating Description
1.1. Diesel Engine Principle
2.1. Four Stroke Cycle Principle:

To many, the diesel principle may not be new, however, the special features of AVSpare Diesel Truck Engines require that the operator and the maintenance personnel become acquainted with the systems in order to give the engine the best possible care. Maximum service depends a great deal on a good maintenance schedule performed by reliable personnel with a basic understanding of the working principles and systems.

Diesel Engine Principle

This diesel engine operates on the reciprocating piston 4-stroke cycle, compression ignition principle, and burns fuels commercially known as diesel fuels. The basic difference between the spark ignition engine and the diesel engine are; the method of introducing fuel into the system, and the method by which the fuel is ignited.

The diesel engine always takes a full charge of "air only" on each inlet stroke, compresses it in an extremely small space causing the air to reach temperatures over 1000°F (537°C). Fuel is injected into the precombustion chamber as the piston nears the top of the compression stroke, where it mixes with the compressed air, and immediately starts to burn. This is called self-ignition, or spontaneous ignition. The expansion of the burning gases forces the piston down on a power stroke.

Four Stroke Cycle Principle:

The four stroke cycle engine has separate strokes for each basic function. The four strokes and the order in which they occur are: Intake, compression, power and exhaust.

It must be remembered that for the four stroke cycle to function, the inlet valves, exhaust valves, and fuel injection must be timed in proper sequence with the piston. This is accomplished by timing gears between the crankshaft, the valve train, and injection pumps.

Intake Stroke: As the piston moves down on the inlet stroke the inlet valves are opened and exhaust valves are closed by the camshaft and rocker arm arrangement. Air is drawn in through the air cleaner by the turbocharger and forced through the water cooled aftercooler and then charges the cylinder through the intake valves.

Compression Stroke: At the end of the intake stroke both inlet valves close and the exhaust valves remain closed. As the piston moves up, the air is compressed into an extremely small space causing the air temperature to rise high enough to ignite fuel. As the piston reaches the top of the stroke, a measured amount of fuel is injected into the cylinder precombustion chamber where it mixes with the compressed air and ignition begins. The atomized and partially burning fuel then rushes into the cylinder for complete combustion and power stroke.

Power Stroke: The piston is forced down by the pressure of the expanding and burning gases in the cylinder above the piston. During this power stroke, both intake and exhaust valves are closed.

Exhaust Stroke: When the piston reaches the bottom of the power stroke the cylinder is filled with burned gases and must be expelled. As the piston begins its upward travel on the exhaust stroke, the exhaust valves are held open by the exhaust cam. As the piston moves up, it forces the burned gases out the exhaust valve ports and through the turbocharger to turn the turbocharger impeller.