3500 Petroleum Engines and Petroleum Generator Sets Gauges and Indicators Caterpillar


Gauges and Indicators
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1.1. Main Module
2.1. Gauge Cluster Modules

Gauges provide indications of engine performance. Ensure that the gauges are in good working order. Determine the normal operating range by observing the gauges over time.

Noticeable changes in gauge readings can indicate potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may also be indicated by gauge readings that change even if the readings are within specifications. Determine and correct the cause of any significant change in the readings. Consult your Cat dealer for assistance.

Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of the gauges that are described below.


NOTICE

If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. The engine will be damaged from operating without oil pressure.


Main Module




Illustration 1g01144258


Emergency Stop (1) - The emergency stop indicator will flash if the "EMERGENCY STOP" button is used to stop the engine.


System Voltage (2) - The indicator for low system voltage illuminates when the ECM detects a supply of less than 20 VDC.


Engine Overspeed (3) - The engine overspeed indicator illuminates when the Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects an overspeed condition.


Overcrank (4) - A time limit for cranking the engine is programmed into the ECM. A limit for the crank cycle is also programmed. The overcrank indicator illuminates when the engine does not start within the limits.


System Not In Auto (5) - This indicator will light whenever the system is not in automatic mode.


Engine Oil Pressure (6) - This indicator will light if the pressure of the engine oil is outside of the typical range. The engine oil pressure will be highest after a cold engine is started. The engine oil pressure will decrease as the engine warms up. The engine oil pressure will increase when the engine rpm is increased. The engine oil pressure will stabilize when the engine rpm is stable. The typical range for engine oil pressure at low idle rpm is 186 to 344 kPa (27 to 50 psi). The typical range for engine oil pressure at rated rpm is 275 to 600 kPa (40 to 87 psi).


High Coolant Temperature (7) - This indicator will light if the coolant temperature exceeds the boiling temperature of the pressurized cooling system.


Low Coolant Temperature (8) - This indicator will light if the coolant temperature is below the normal operating temperature.


Coolant Level (9) - The low coolant level indicator will light if the coolant level falls below normal.


Low Fuel Level (10) - The low fuel level indicator illuminates when the level of fuel in the fuel tank is low.

Gauge Cluster Modules




Illustration 2g01144260


Engine Oil Pressure (1) - The engine oil pressure gauge indicates the pressure of the engine oil. The engine oil pressure will be highest after a cold engine is started. The engine oil pressure will decrease as the engine warms up. The engine oil pressure will increase when the engine rpm is increased. The engine oil pressure will stabilize when the engine rpm is stable. The typical range for engine oil pressure at low idle rpm is 186 to 344 kPa (27 to 50 psi). The typical range for engine oil pressure at rated rpm is 275 to 600 kPa (40 to 87 psi).


Coolant Temperature (2) - The coolant temperature gauge indicates the temperature of the engine coolant. The coolant temperature may vary according to the load. The coolant temperature should never be allowed to exceed the boiling temperature of the pressurized cooling system. The operating range for coolant temperature is 88 to 100 °C (190 to 210 °F). Higher temperatures may occur under certain conditions.

The sensor for coolant temperature is to be fully submerged in order to detect the temperature correctly. If the engine is operating above the normal temperature range, perform the following procedure:

  1. Reduce the load and reduce the engine rpm.

  1. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.

  1. Determine if the engine must be shut down immediately or if the engine can be cooled by reducing the load.


System Voltage (3) - This meter indicates the voltage of the electrical system. The meter normally indicates 24 V.

Inspect the charging system if either of the following conditions are observed:

  • Less than 24 V during normal operation

  • An excessive charge during normal operation


Fuel Pressure (4) - Fuel pressure is measured at the rated speed. The fuel pressure gauge indicates the fuel pressure to the fuel injection pump from the fuel filter. Nominal fuel pressure is 448 kPa (65 psi). Maximum fuel pressure is 607 kPa (88 psi). Minimum fuel pressure is 303 kPa (44 psi).

A decrease in fuel pressure usually indicates a dirty fuel filter or a plugged fuel filter. As the fuel filter becomes plugged, there will be a noticeable reduction in the engine performance.




Illustration 3g01144261


Exhaust Temperature (1) - The gauge for the exhaust temperature indicates exhaust gas temperature. Maximum exhaust temperature is approximately 575°C (1065°F).


Inlet Air Restriction (2) - The gauge for the inlet air restriction indicates the difference in air pressure. The difference is between the inlet side and the engine side of the air filter element. The air restriction is measured at the air inlet to the turbocharger. As the air filter element becomes plugged, the difference in pressure between the two sides of the air cleaner element will increase. The normal air restriction for the engine is 1.25 kPa (5 inches of H2O). Clean the air cleaner elements or replace the air cleaner elements when the air restriction reaches 2.5 kPa (10 inches of H2O). Maximum air restriction is 3.7 kPa (15 inches of H2O).


Fuel Filter Restriction (3) - The fuel filter gauge indicates the difference in fuel pressure between the inlet side and the outlet side of the fuel filter. As the fuel filter element becomes plugged, the difference in pressure between the two sides of the fuel filter increases.

Service the fuel filter when the fuel filter differential pressure reaches 103 kPa (15 psi).


Oil Filter Restriction (4) - The gauge for the oil filter indicates the difference in pressure between the inlet side and the outlet side of the engine oil filters. As the oil filter elements become plugged, oil filter differential pressure will increase.

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