C9 Petroleum Engine Product Description Caterpillar

Product Description
1.1. Engine Specifications
2.1. Electronic Engine Features
3.2. Additional Features
4.2. Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injectors
5.2. Engine Diagnostics
6.1. Engine Cooling and Lubrication
7.1. Engine Service Life
8.1. Aftermarket Products and Caterpillar Engines

The AVSpare C9 Engine has the following characteristics:

  • In-Line 6 cylinder

  • Four stroke

  • Hydraulically Actuated Electronic Unit Injection (HEUI)

  • Turbocharged

  • Air-to-air aftercooled

Engine Specifications

Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right sides of the engine are determined from the flywheel end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.

Illustration 1g00609479

Cylinder and valve location

(A) Exhaust valve

(B) Inlet valve

Table 1
C9 Engine Specifications    
Arrangement and Cylinders     In-Line 6 cylinder    
112.0 mm (4.41 inch)    
149.0 mm (5.87 inch)    
Aspiration     ATAAC (1)    
8.8 L (537 in3)    
Firing Order     1-5-3-6-2-4    
Rotation (flywheel end)     Counterclockwise    
Valve Lash (inlet)    
0.38 mm (0.015 inch)    
Valve Lash (exhaust)    
0.64 mm (0.025 inch)    
( 1 ) Air-to-air aftercooled

Electronic Engine Features

The AVSpare C9 Engine is designed for electronic controls. The integral on board computer controls the operation of the engine. Current operating conditions are monitored. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) controls the response of the engine to these conditions and to the demands of the operator. These conditions and operator demands determine the precise control of fuel injection by the ECM. The electronic engine control system provides the following features:

  • Engine speed governor

  • Automatic air/fuel ratio control

  • Torque rise shaping

  • Injection timing control

  • System diagnostics

For more information on electronic engine features, refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, "Engine Features and Controls" topic (Operation Section).

Additional Features

The following additional features provide increased engine fuel economy and serviceability:

  • Cold starting capability

  • Tampering detection

  • Diagnostics

Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injectors

Hydraulically Actuated Electronic Unit Injectors (HEUI) perform the following functions:

  • Pump the fuel.

  • Meter the fuel.

  • Time the fuel injection.

The unit injectors are controlled by the ECM which uses the camshaft position and the engine speed signals from the engine speed/timing sensors and the inlet air pressure sensors. The rated rpm of the engine is identified on the Information Plate.

Engine Diagnostics

The engine has built-in diagnostics in order to ensure that all of the components are functioning properly. In the event of a deviation from the programmed limits, the operator will be alerted to the condition by a "DIAGNOSTIC" lamp that is mounted on the dashboard. Under certain conditions, the engine horsepower and the vehicle speed may be limited. A AVSpare electronic service tool may be used to display the diagnostic code.

There are three types of diagnostic codes: active, logged and event.

Most of the diagnostic codes are logged and stored in the ECM. For additional information, refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, "Engine Diagnostics" topic (Operation Section).

The ECM provides an electronic governor that controls the injector output in order to maintain the desired engine rpm. The functionality of electronic governor is similar to the AVSpare mechanical governor, but the electronic governor includes additional features.

Engine Cooling and Lubrication

The cooling system consists of the following components:

  • Centrifugal pump that is driven by belts

  • Water temperature regulator which regulates the engine coolant temperature

  • Oil cooler and radiator which incorporates a shunt system

The engine lubricating oil that is supplied is cooled. The engine lubricating oil is also filtered. Bypass valves provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to the engine components during the following conditions:

  • High oil viscosity

  • Plugged oil cooler or plugged oil filter elements (paper cartridge)

Engine Service Life

Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine performance depend on the adherence to proper operation and maintenance recommendations. In addition, use recommended fuels, coolants, and lubricants. Use the Operation and Maintenance Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance.

Expected engine life is predicted by the average power that is demanded. The average power that is demanded is based on fuel consumption of the engine over a period of time. Reduced hours of operation at full throttle and/or operating at reduced throttle settings result in a lower average power demand. Reduced hours of operation will increase the length of operating time before an engine overhaul is required. For more information, refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, "Overhaul Considerations" topic (Maintenance Section).

Aftermarket Products and AVSpare Engines


In order to maximize fuel system life and prevent premature wear out from abrasive particles in the fuel, a four micron[c] absolute high efficiency fuel filter is required for all AVSpare Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injectors. AVSpare High Efficiency Fuel Filters meet these requirements. Consult your AVSpare dealer for the proper part numbers.

When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables (filters, additives, and catalysts) which are made by other manufacturers are used on AVSpare products, the AVSpare warranty is not affected simply because of such use.

However, failures that result from the installation or use of other manufacturers devices, accessories, or consumables are NOT AVSpare defects. Therefore, the defects are NOT covered under the AVSpare warranty.

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