3500E Marine Engines Fluid Recommendations Caterpillar


Fluid Recommendations
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1.1. Diesel Engine Oil
2.2. Cat DEO (Diesel Engine Oil)
3.2. Engine Oil
4.2. S·O·S Services Oil Analysis
5.1. Diesel Fuel Recommendations
6.1. Lubricating Grease
7.1. Coolant
8.2. S·O·S Services Coolant Analysis
9.3. Special Requirements
10.1. Aftertreatment
11.2. Urea Solution Recommendations for Marine Engines
12.2. Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Recommendations
13.2. DEF Guidelines
14.2. Materials compatibility
15.2. Bulk storage
16.2. Handling
17.2. Cleanliness
18.2. Stability
19.2. General Characteristics of DEF


NOTICE

Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-to-date information. By the use of this document, you agree that AVSpare is not responsible for errors or omissions.



NOTICE

These recommendations are subject to change without prior notice. Contact your Cat dealer for the most up to date recommendations.


Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, "Cat Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations" for additional information.

Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, "Severe Service Application" for information about operating an engine in a severe service application.

Note: Instructions for the installation of the filter are printed on the side of each Cat spin-on filter. For filters that are not Cat filters, refer to the installation instructions that are provided by the supplier of the filter.

Diesel Engine Oil

Cat DEO (Diesel Engine Oil)

Due to significant variations in the quality and in the performance of commercially available oils, AVSpare makes the following recommendations:

  • Cat DEO-ULS (Diesel Engine Oil Ultra Low Sulfur) (SAE 5W-40)

  • Cat DEO-ULS (Diesel Engine Oil Ultra Low Sulfur) (SAE 10W-30)

  • Cat DEO-ULS (Diesel Engine Oil Ultra Low Sulfur) (SAE 15W-40)

Engine Oil

Cat oils have been developed and tested to provide the full performance and life that has been designed and built into Cat engines.

Table 1
Cat Engine Crankcase Fluids (ECF) Definitions 
Cat Performance Requirement  Cat ECF Specifications Requirements 
Cat ECF-3  API CJ-4 Oil Category performance requirements 

Cat DEO-ULS or oils that meet the Cat ECF-3 specification and the API CJ-4 are required for use in the applications listed below. Cat DEO-ULS and oils meeting Cat ECF-3 specification and the API CJ-4 and ACEA E9 oil categories have been developed with limited sulfated ash, phosphorus, and sulfur. These chemical limits are designed to maintain the expected aftertreatment devices life, performance, and service interval. If oils meeting the Cat ECF-3 specification and the API CJ-4 specifications are not available, oils meeting ACEA E9 may be used. ACEA E9 oils meet the chemical limits designed to maintain aftertreatment device life. ACEA E9 oils are validated using some but not all ECF-3 and API CJ-4 standard engine performance tests. Consult your oil supplier when considering use of an oil that is not Cat ECF-3 or API CJ-4 qualified.

Failure to meet the listed requirements will damage aftertreatment equipped engines and can negatively impact the performance of the aftertreatment devices. The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) will plug sooner and require more frequent DPF ash service intervals.

Typical aftertreatment systems include the following:

  • Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)

  • Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC)

  • Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)

  • Lean NOx Traps (LNT)

Other systems may apply.

Table 2
Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures 
Compartment or System  Oil Type and Performance Requirements  Oil Viscosities  °C  °F 
Min Max Min Max 
Engine Crankcase  Cat DEO-ULS Cold Weather  SAE 0W-40  −40  40  −40  104 
Cat DEO-ULS SYN SAE 5W-40  −30  50  −22  122 
Cat DEO-ULS SAE 10W-30  −18  40  104 
Cat DEO-ULS SAE 15W-40  −9.5  50  15  122 


NOTICE

Do not use oil renewal systems in engines equipped with aftertreatment systems. Reduced life or damage to the aftertreatment may occur.


S·O·S Services Oil Analysis


NOTICE

These recommendations are subject to change without prior notice. Contact your Cat dealer for the most up to date recommendations.


AVSpare has developed a maintenance tool that evaluates oil degradation. the maintenance management also detects the early signs of wear on internal components. The Cat tool for oil analysis is called S·O·S Oil Analysis and the tool is part of the S·O·S Services program. S·O·S Oil Analysis divides oil analysis into four categories:

  • Component wear rate

  • Oil condition

  • Oil contamination

  • Identification of oil

These four types of analysis are used to monitor the condition of your equipment. The four types of analysis will also help you identify potential problems. Repair costs may be reduced by a properly administered S·O·S Oil Analysis program.

The S·O·S Oil Analysis program uses a wide range of tests to determine the condition of the oil and the lubricated compartment. Guidelines that are based on experience and a correlation to failures have been established for these tests. Exceeding one or more of these guidelines could indicate serious fluid degradation or a pending component failure. A trained person at your Cat dealer should make the final analysis.


NOTICE

Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and use a separate designated pump for coolant sampling. Using the same pump for both types of samples may contaminate the samples that are being drawn. This contaminate may cause a false analysis and an incorrect interpretation that could lead to concerns by both dealers and customers.


Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, "Cat Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations" to obtain additional information about S·O·S Services oil analysis. You can also contact your local Cat dealer to obtain additional information about the S·O·S Services Oil Analysis program.

Diesel Fuel Recommendations



Illustration 1g02157153
NACD Film


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EAME Film

Diesel fuel must meet “Cat Specification for Distillate Fuel” and the latest versions of "ASTM D975" or "EN 590" to ensure optimum engine performance. Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, "Cat Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations" for the latest fuel information and for Cat fuel specification. This manual may be found on the web at Safety.Cat.com.


NOTICE

Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel 0.0015 percent (≤15 ppm (mg/kg)) sulfur is required by regulation for use in engines certified to marine Tier 4 standards (U.S. EPA Tier 4 certified) and that are equipped with exhaust aftertreatment systems.


Only Tier 4 certified engines on US Flagged vessels require ULSD. Fuel tank inlet labels are installed to ensure that the correct fuels are used.

Misfueling with fuels of higher sulfur level can have the following negative effects:

  • Shorten the time interval between aftertreatment device service intervals (cause the need for more frequent service intervals)

  • Adversely impact the performance and life of aftertreatment devices (cause loss of performance)

  • Reduce engine efficiency and durability

  • Increase the wear

  • Increase the corrosion

  • Increase the deposits

  • Lower fuel economy

  • Shorten the time period between oil drain intervals (more frequent oil drain intervals).

  • Increase overall operating costs.

Exposure to fuel with sulfur levels above 1000 ppm will reduce the life of NOx sensors and aftertreatment components.

Note: NOx sensors should be replaced every 3000hrs or 18 months (If using fuel with a sulfur content greater than 15PPM). NOx sensors should be replaced every 9000hrs or 48 months if using ULSD less than 15PPM.

Failures that result from the use of improper fuels are not AVSpare factory defects. Therefore the cost of repairs would not be covered by a Cat warranty.

Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, "Cat Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations" for more details about fuels, lubricants, and Tier four requirements. This manual may be found on the web at Safety.Cat.com.

Lubricating Grease


NOTICE

These recommendations are subject to change without prior notice. Contact your Cat dealer for the most up to date recommendations.


AVSpare provides various greases that vary in performance from a moderate performance to high performance. Cat greases service the entire line of AVSpare products in the wide variety of climates throughout the world. From this variety of Cat grease products, you can find a Cat grease that will meet or exceed the performance requirements of most engines.

The performance requirements of your engine must be determined before you select any Cat grease. Consult the recommendations for greases that are made by the OEM for the equipment. Then, consult with your Cat dealer for a list of greases that have the performance specifications and the available sizes of containers.

Note: Always choose grease that meets or exceeds the recommendations that are specified by the equipment manufacturer for the application.

If necessary, choose a single grease to use for all the equipment at one site. Always choose a grease that meets or exceeds the requirements of the most demanding application. Remember that the products which barely meet the minimum performance requirements can be expected to produce the minimum lives of your parts. False economy is being used if a grease is purchased with the lowest cost as the only consideration. Instead, use the grease that yields the lowest total operating cost. This cost should be based on an analysis that includes the costs of parts, labor, downtime, and the grease that is required.

Note: Purge all the old grease from a joint before you change from one type of grease to another type of grease. Some greases are not chemically compatible with other greases. Consult your supplier to determine if the greases are compatible.

If you are not certain that the old grease is compatible with the new grease, purge the old grease from the system. Install the new grease.

Note: All Cat greases are chemically compatible with each other. Mixing of Cat greases does not result in an adverse chemical reaction. However, mixing of Cat greases may result in reduced performance.

Non-Cat commercial greases are as a group second choice greases. Within this grouping of second choice greases, there are tiered levels of performance. For more information, refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, "Cat Commercial Diesel Engines Fluids Recommendations".

Coolant


NOTICE

These recommendations are subject to change without prior notice. Contact your Cat dealer for the most up to date recommendations.



NOTICE

Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.



NOTICE

Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.



NOTICE

Never operate an engine without water temperature regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.


The following two coolants are used in Cat Diesel Engines:

Preferred - Cat ELC (Extended Life Coolant) or a commercial extended life coolant that meets the Cat Engine Coolant -1 (EC-1) specification.

Acceptable - Cat DEAC (Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant) or a commercial heavy-duty coolant that meets "ASTM D4985", or "ASTM D6210" specifications

Note: Cat DEAC does not require a treatment with a Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) at the initial fill. However, a commercial heavy-duty coolant that only meets the "ASTM D4985" specification will require a treatment with an SCA at the initial fill. A commercial heavy-duty coolant that meets the "ASTM D6210" specification will not require a treatment with an SCA at the initial fill. Read the label or the instructions that are provided by the manufacturer of the commercial heavy-duty coolant.

Note: These coolants will require a treatment with a supplemental coolant additive on a maintenance basis.

Table 3
Service Life Before Flushing and Before Refilling 
Coolant  Service Life(1) 
Cat ELC  6000 hours, or 6 years 
Commercial coolant that meets the Cat EC-1 specification  6000 hours, or 6 years 
Cat DEAC  3000 hours, or 3 years 
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant that meets "ASTM D4985" or "ASTM D6210"  3000 hours, or 1 year 
(1) Use the interval that occurs first.

Note: Add the Cat ELC Extender at the halfway point of the coolant change interval.

Note: These coolant change intervals are only possible with annual S·O·S Services Level 2 coolant sampling and analysis.

S·O·S Services Coolant Analysis

Table 4
Recommended Interval 
Type of Coolant  Level 1  Level 2 
DEAC  Every 250 Hours(1)
(2) 
Every 1000 Hours or Yearly(1)(3) 
ELC  Optional(3)  Yearly(3) 
(1) This interval is recommended for the sampling of all conventional heavy-duty coolant.
(2) This interval is also recommended for the sampling of a commercial coolant that meets the Cat (Engine Coolant specification - 1) requirement.
(3) The Level 2 coolant analysis should be performed sooner if a problem is suspected or identified.

Testing the engine coolant is important to ensure that the engine is protected from internal cavitation and from corrosion. The analysis also tests the ability of the coolant to protect the engine from boiling and from freezing. The S·O·S Coolant Analysis can be performed at your Cat dealer. Cat S·O·S Coolant Analysis is the best way to monitor the condition of your coolant and your cooling system. S·O·S Coolant Analysis is a program that is based on periodic samples.


NOTICE

Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and use a separate designated pump for coolant sampling. Using the same pump for both types of samples may contaminate the samples that are being drawn. This contaminate may cause a false analysis and an incorrect interpretation that could lead to concerns by both dealers and customers.


For more information, refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, "Cat Commercial Diesel Engines Fluids Recommendations"

Special Requirements

Table 5
Special Requirements(1) 
Cat diesel engines equipped with air-to-air aftercooling (ATAAC)  Minimum of 30% glycol is required. 50% Glycol is recommended. Water alone or water with SCA or with ELI is NOT allowed. 
Cat C7-C32 marine engines with engine-mounted heat exchangers and raw water aftercoolers (SWAC(2)
Cat 3618 engine model  Water-based ELI is recommended. Water-based SCA is acceptable. Glycol-based coolants are NOT allowed. 
Cat C18 SCAC(3), Cat C32 SCAC, Cat 3500C Tier 3, and Cat 3500E Tier 4(4) certified Marine engines  Maximum of 20% glycol is allowed in the aftercooler circuit.(5)
(not applicable to the jacket water circuit, which can operate with 50% glycol) 
(1) Water-based ELI and SCA are not recommended for use in applications that require freeze protection.
(2) SWAC: seawater aftercoolers
(3) SCAC: Separate Circuit Aftercooler
(4) 43° C (109.4° F) SCAC inlet temperature allowable when operating with treated water only.
(5) For freezing protection of −5° C (23° F) temperatures and lower, consult your Cat dealer for guidance.

Aftertreatment

Note: If the engine operates in an area outside of US EPA jurisdiction and where ULSD will be unavailable, request a migratory exemption from EPA per 40 CFR 1042.650 at complianceinfo@EPA.gov for Tier 4 engines. To operate a Cat Marine Diesel Engine which is certified to US EPA Tier 4 Standards with fuel that contains >50 ppm (mg/Kg) of sulfur and includes an optional Closed Crankcase Ventilation (CCV) system, the CCV must be made to prevent fouling of the aftercooler. Crankcase fumes cannot be routed back into the engine air intake when the engine is operating with fuel that contains >50 ppm (mg/kg) of sulfur. Filtered Open Crankcase Ventilation systems may be available for this purpose. Do not use high sulfur fuel with the CCV system. The CCV system for Tier 4 is not required to meet emissions.

Urea Solution Recommendations for Marine Engines

US waters are an International Maritime Organization (IMO) NOx Emissions Control Area (NECA). Low NOx engines are required in these areas. These engines may require the use of Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) and other urea solutions for engines equipped with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. If required, Cat marine engines are designed to operate on DEF of urea concentrations of 32.5 percent (by weight) or 40 percent (by weight). The crystallization temperature of 40 percent urea solution is 0° C (32° F). If urea solution ambient temperatures are routinely below 5° C (41° F) and supplemental heat is not applied to urea storage, then 32.5 percent solution should be used and maintained at a temperature above −10° C (14° F). Urea solutions should be maintained above the specified freezing temperature. Consult the urea supplier and follow the guidelines provided in this article for solution handling and recommendations

Vessels that are traveling internationally and that have on/off NOx controls must enable these controls prior to entering a NECA. For US flagged vessels, on/off controls are not allowed without an exemption during international travel. The controls must always be on. Foreign destinations should be reviewed for supply of ULSD fuel and DEF prior to departure. Exemptions for ULSD or DEF use by US flagged vessels may be requested from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA can be contacted at the following address:

complianceinfo@epa.gov

When used in marine engines, DEF of 32.5 percent urea concentration must meet all the guidelines and quality recommendations given in this Chapter.

When used in marine engines, urea solutions of 40 percent concentration must follow all the DEF guidelines and quality recommendations given in this chapter. The supplier should provide documentation to prove that the urea solution is compliant with the published characteristics.

Refer to your engine Operation and Maintenance Manual to determine the concentration of urea solution allowed in your engine.


NOTICE

AVSpare does not warrant the quality or performance of non Cat fluids and greases.


Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Recommendations

For use in Cat engines, DEF concentration that is 32.5percent must meet all requirements defined by "ISO 22241 - 1". DEF concentration that is 40 percent must meet all requirements defined by "ISO 018611".

AVSpare recommends the use of DEF available through the Cat parts ordering system for use in Cat engines equipped with SCR systems. Refer to Table 6 for part number information:

Table 6
Cat Part Number  Container Size 
350-8733  2.5 gal bottle 
350-8734  1000-L totes 

In North America, commercial DEF that is API approved and meets all the requirements defined in "ISO 22241-1" may be used in Cat engines that are equipped with SCR systems.

Outside of North America, commercial DEF that meets all requirements defined in "ISO 22241-1" may be used in Cat engines that are equipped with SCR systems.

The supplier should provide documentation to prove that the DEF is compliant with the requirements of "ISO 22241-1".

To obtain locations of DEF suppliers, call (888)-598-8186 or (309)-494-7532.


NOTICE

AVSpare does not warrant the quality or performance of non Cat fluids and greases.



NOTICE

Do not use agriculture grade urea solutions. Do not use any fluids that do not meet "ISO 22241-1" Requirements in SCR emissions reduction systems. Use of these fluids can result in numerous problems including damage to SCR equipment and a reduction in NOx conversion efficiency.


DEF is a solution of solid urea that is dissolved in demineralized water to produce a final concentration of 32.5 percent urea. DEF concentration of 32.5 percent or 40 percent is optimal for use in SCR systems. DEF solution of 32.5 percent urea has the lowest attainable freeze point of −11.5° C (11.3° F). DEF dosing systems and "ISO 22241-1" specifications are designed for a solution that is 32.5 percent.

AVSpare offers a refractometer, Cat part number 431-7087 that can be used to measure DEF in percent concentration. Follow the instructions provided with the instrument. Appropriate commercial portable refractometers can be used to determine urea concentration. Follow the instructions from the manufacturer.

DEF Guidelines

Quality of DEF can degrade when stored and handled inappropriately or if DEF is not protected from contamination. Details are provided below.

If quality issues are suspected or a DEF quality fault is active, testing of DEF should focus on urea concentration, alkalinity as NH3 and biuret content. Do not use DEF that does not pass all these tests.

Note: AVSpare recommends that customers purchase the pre-mixed DEF urea solution from a reputable supplier. The DEF must satisfy all the specifications of quality. Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, "Exhaust Aftertreatment Fluids Specifications". Urea solutions that are not made of urea and water of the appropriate quality and cleanliness may damage the SCR system. Poor or questionable quality DEF can lead to more repair and maintenance costs to the customer. Cat warranties do not cover failures caused by or related to use of out of specification urea solutions in Tier 4 Stage IIIB MLIT Step 4 products equipped with SCR systems.

Materials compatibility

DEF is corrosive. Due to the corrosion caused, DEF must be stored in tanks constructed of approved materials. Recommended storage materials:

Stainless Steels:

  • 304 (S30400)

  • 304L (S30403)

  • 316 (S31600)

  • 316L (S31603)

  • 409 (S40900)

  • 439 (S43035)

Alloys and metals:

  • Chromium Nickel (CrNi)

  • Chromium Nickel Molybdenum (CrNiMo)

  • Titanium

Non-metallic materials:

  • Polyethylene

  • Polypropylene

  • Polyisobutylene

  • Teflon (PFA)

  • Polyfluoroethylene (PFE)

  • Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)

  • Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

Materials NOT compatible with DEF solutions include Aluminum, Magnesium, Zinc, Nickel coatings, Silver, and Carbon steel and Solders containing any of the above. Unexpected reactions may occur if DEF solutions come in contact with any non-compatible material or unknown materials.

Bulk storage

Follow all local regulations covering bulk storage tanks. Follow proper tank construction guidelines. Tank volume typically should be 110% of planned capacity. Appropriately vent indoor tanks. Plan for control of overflow of the tank. Heat tanks that dispense DEF in cold climates.

Bulk tank breathers should be fitted with filtration to keep airborne debris from entering the tank. Do not use desiccant breathers because water will be absorbed, which potentially can alter DEF concentration.

Handling

Follow all local regulations covering transport and handling. DEF transport temperature is recommended to be −5° C (23° F) to 25° C (77° F). All transfer equipment and intermediate containers should be used exclusively for DEF. Do not reuse containers for any other fluids. Ensure that transfer equipment is made from DEF compatible materials. Recommended material for hoses and other non-metallic transfer equipment includes:

  • Nitrile Rubber (NBR)

  • Fluoroelastomer (FKM)

  • Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM)

The condition of hoses and other nonmetallic that are used with DEF should be monitored for signs of degradation. DEF leaks are easily recognizable by white urea crystals that accumulate at the site of the leak. Solid urea can be corrosive to galvanized or unalloyed steel, aluminum, copper, and brass. Leaks should be repaired immediately to avoid damage to surrounding hardware.

Cleanliness

Contaminants can degrade the quality and life of DEF. Filtering DEF is required when dispensed into the DEF tank. Filters should be compatible with DEF and should be used exclusively with DEF. Check with the filter supplier to confirm compatibility with DEF before using. Mesh-type filters using compatible metals, such as stainless steel, are recommended. Paper (cellulose) media and some synthetic filter media are not recommended because of degradation during use.

Care should be taken when dispensing DEF. Spills should be cleaned immediately. Machine or engine surfaces should be wiped clean and rinsed with water. Caution should be used when dispensing DEF near an engine that has recently been running.

Note: Spilling DEF onto hot components may cause the release of ammonia vapors. Do not breathe ammonia vapors. Do not clean up any spills with bleach.

Stability

DEF fluid is stable when stored and handled properly. The quality of DEF rapidly degrades when stored at high temperatures. The ideal storage temperature for DEF is between −9° C (15.8° F) and 25° C (77° F). DEF that is stored above 35° C (95° F) for longer than 1 month must be tested before use. Testing should evaluate Urea Percentage, Alkalinity as NH3 and Biuret content.

The length of storage of DEF is listed in the following table:

Table 7
Storage Temperature  Expected DEF Life 
Below 25° C (77° F)  18 months 
25° C (77° F) to 30° C (86° F)  12 months 
30° C (86° F) to 35° C (95° F)  6 months 
Above 35° C (95° F)  test quality before use 

Refer to "ISO 22241" document series for more information about DEF quality control.

Note: Dispose of all fluids according to applicable regulations and mandates.

General Characteristics of DEF

DEF with a concentration of 32.5 percent has a freezing point of −11° C (12° F). The crystallization temperature of 40 percent urea solution is 0° C (32° F). For detailed information on the requirements and other characteristics of DEF, refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU6251, "Cat Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations", "Exhaust Aftertreatment Fluids Specifications".

Table 8
Characteristics for Urea Solutions 
Property  Unit  DEF 32.5 percent  Urea Solution 40 percent 
Urea content    32.5 percent (1)  40 percent (2) 
Alkalinity as NH3  Percent  0.2  0.2 
Density at 20° C (68° F)  g/L  1.087 - 1.093 (3)  1.108 - 1.114 (4) 
Refractive Index at 25° C (77° F)    1.381 - 1.384 (5)  1.394-1.397 (6) 
Biuret  Percent  0.3 max 
Aldehydes  mg/kg  5 max 
Insoluble Matter  mg/kg  20 max 
Aluminum  mg/kg  0.5 max 
Calcium  mg/kg  0.5 max 
Chromium  mg/kg  0.2 max 
Copper  mg/kg  0.2 max 
Iron  mg/kg  0.5 max 
Magnesium  mg/kg  0.5 max 
Nickel  mg/kg  0.2 max 
Phosphate (PO4 mg/kg  0.5 max 
Potassium  mg/kg  0.5 max 
Sodium  mg/kg  0.5 max 
Zinc  mg/kg  0.2 max 
(1) Acceptable range is 31.8 - 33.2 percent
(2) Acceptable range is 39-41 percent
(3) Target value is 1.090 g/L
(4) Target value is 1.112
(5) Target value is 1.382
(6) Target value is 1.3956