C7 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Basic Engine Caterpillar


Basic Engine
`
C7 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines [SENR9939]
BASIC ENGINE
C7 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Basic Engine
1.1. Cylinder Block And Head
2.1. Piston, Rings And Connecting Rods
3.1. Crankshaft
4.1. Viscous Vibration Damper
5.1. Camshaft

Cylinder Block And Head

The cylinder block has seven main bearings. The main bearing caps are fastened to the cylinder block with two bolts per cap.

Removal of the oil pan allows access to the crankshaft, the main bearing caps, the piston cooling jets, and the oil pump.

The camshaft is accessible through the covers on the left side of the cylinder block. These side covers support the pushrod lifters. The camshaft is supported by bearings that are pressed into the cylinder block. There are seven camshaft bearings.

The cylinder head is separated from the cylinder block by a nonasbestos fiber gasket with a steel backing. Coolant flows out of the cylinder block through gasket openings and into the cylinder head. This gasket also seals the oil supply and drain passages between the cylinder block and the cylinder head.

The air inlet ports are on the left side of the cylinder head, while the exhaust ports are located on the right side of the cylinder head. There are two inlet valves and one exhaust valve for each cylinder. Replaceable valve guides are pressed into the cylinder head. The hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit injector is located between the three valves. Fuel is injected directly into the cylinders at very high pressure. A pushrod valve system controls the valves.

Piston, Rings And Connecting Rods

High output engines with high cylinder pressures require two-piece articulated pistons. The two-piece articulated piston consists of an alloy forged steel crown that is connected to an aluminum skirt by the piston pin. The two-piece articulated piston has three rings:

  • Compression ring

  • Intermediate ring

  • Oil ring

All of the rings are located above the piston pin bore. The compression ring is a Keystone ring. Keystone rings have a tapered shape. The action of the ring in the piston groove that is tapered helps prevent seizure of the rings. Seizure of the rings is caused by deposits of carbon. The intermediate ring is rectangular with a sharp lower edge. The oil ring is a standard type of ring or a conventional type of ring. Oil returns to the crankcase through holes in the oil ring groove.

Oil from the piston cooling jets sprays the underside of the pistons. The spray lubricates the pistons and the spray cools the pistons. The spray also improves the piston's life and the spray also improves the ring's life.

The connecting rod has a taper on the pin bore end. This taper gives the connecting rod and the piston more strength. The additional strength is concentrated in the areas with the most load. Two bolts hold the connecting rod cap to the connecting rod. This design keeps the connecting rod width to a minimum, so that the connecting rod can be removed through the cylinder.

Crankshaft

The crankshaft changes the combustion forces in the cylinder into usable rotating torque which powers the equipment. A vibration damper is used at the front of the crankshaft to reduce torsional vibrations (twist on the crankshaft) that can cause damage to the engine.

The crankshaft drives a group of gears on the front of the engine. The gear group drives the following devices:

  • Oil pump

  • Camshaft

  • Hydraulic oil pump

  • Auxiliary

In addition, belt pulleys on the front of the crankshaft drive:

  • Engine water pump

  • Alternator

Hydrodynamic seals are used at both ends of the crankshaft to control oil leakage. The hydrodynamic grooves in the seal lip move lubrication oil back into the crankcase as the crankshaft turns. The front seal is located in the front housing. The rear seal is installed in the flywheel housing.



Illustration 1g01130544
Schematic of oil passages in crankshaft
(1) Oil gallery
(2) Main bearings
(3) Connecting rod bearings

Pressure oil is supplied to all main bearings through drilled holes in the webs of the cylinder block. The oil then flows through drilled holes in the crankshaft in order to provide oil to the connecting rod bearings. The crankshaft is held in place by seven main bearings. A thrust bearing next to the rear main bearing controls the end play of the crankshaft.

Viscous Vibration Damper



Illustration 2g01135334
Cross section of viscous vibration damper
(1) Weight
(2) Case

The force from combustion in the cylinders will cause the crankshaft to twist. This is called torsional vibration. If the vibration is too great, the crankshaft will be damaged. The vibration damper limits the torsional vibrations to an acceptable amount in order to prevent damage to the crankshaft.

The viscous vibration damper is installed on the front of the crankshaft. The viscous vibration damper has a weight (1) in a case (2). The space between the weight and the case is filled with a viscous fluid. The weight moves in the case in order to limit the torsional vibration.

Camshaft

The camshaft is located in the upper left side of the cylinder block. The camshaft is driven by gears at the front of the engine. Seven bearings support the camshaft. A thrust plate is mounted between the camshaft drive gear and a shoulder of the camshaft in order to control the end play of the camshaft.

The camshaft is driven by an idler gear which is driven by the crankshaft gear. The camshaft rotates in the same direction as the crankshaft. The crankshaft rotates in the counterclockwise direction when the engine is viewed from the flywheel end of the engine. There are timing marks on the crankshaft gear, the idler gear, and the camshaft gear in order to ensure the correct camshaft timing to the crankshaft for proper valve operation.

As the camshaft turns, each lobe moves a lifter assembly. There are two lifter assemblies for each cylinder. Each lifter assembly moves a pushrod. Each pushrod moves a valve (exhaust) or a set of valves (inlet). The camshaft must be in time with the crankshaft. The relation of the camshaft lobes to the crankshaft position causes the valves in each cylinder to operate at the correct time.

Information System:

3508C, 3512C and 3516C Marine Engines Electronic Unit Injector - Install
3508C, 3512C and 3516C Marine Engines Electronic Unit Injector - Remove
C0.5, C0.7, C1.1/3011C, C1.5/3013C, C1.6 and C2.2/3024C/3024CT Industrial Engines and Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Crankshaft Rear Seal - Install
C0.5, C0.7, C1.1/3011C, C1.5/3013C, C1.6 and C2.2/3024C/3024CT Industrial Engines and Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Water Temperature Regulator - Remove and Install
C0.5, C0.7, C1.1/3011C, C1.5/3013C, C1.6 and C2.2/3024C/3024CT Industrial Engines and Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Coolant Temperature Switch - Remove and Install
3508C, 3512C and 3516C Marine Engines Fuel Priming Pump - Remove and Install
3508C, 3512C and 3516C Marine Engines Aftercooler Coolant Temperature Sensor - Remove and Install
3508C, 3512C and 3516C Marine Engines Crankcase Pressure Sensor - Remove and Install
3508C, 3512C and 3516C Marine Engines Fuel Pressure Sensor - Remove and Install
3406C Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Alternator and Regulator
3508C, 3512C and 3516C Marine Engines Engine Oil Pressure Sensor - Remove and Install
2004/12/01 Updated Information to Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU6251 , "Engine Oil (3116 and 3126 Marine Engines" {1348, 7581}
C7 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Fuel System
C7 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Air Inlet and Exhaust System
C7 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Cooling System
C7 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Lubrication System
C9 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Aftercooler - Test
VR6B Voltage Regulator Installation For 480V Sensing VR3 Regulators On 3500 Generator Sets {4467}
3508B, 3512B and 3516B Generator Set Engines Electric Starting Motor - Remove and Install
3500 Engines Prelubrication Oil Pump - Remove and Install
G3612 and G3616 Engines Specifications
307D, 311D, 312D, 313D, 315D, 318D, 319D, 320D, 323D, 324D, 325D, 326D, 328D, 329D, 330D, 336D, 340D, 345D, 349D, 374D, 390D and M325D Excavators Air Conditioning and Heating Air Conditioning and Heating System Sensor Operation
C32 Marine Engines CAN Data Link Circuit - Test
G3606 and G3608 Engines Specifications