C4.4 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Air Inlet and Exhaust System Caterpillar


Air Inlet and Exhaust System
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C4.4 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines [UENR4524]
AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM
C4.4 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Air Inlet and Exhaust System - Inspect
C4.4 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Air Inlet and Exhaust System
1.1. Turbocharger
2.1. Crankcase Breather
3.1. Valve System Components


Illustration 1g01205681
Air inlet and exhaust system
(1) Exhaust manifold
(2) Electronic unit injector
(3) Glow plug
(4) Inlet manifold
(5) Aftercooler core (if equipped)
(6) Exhaust outlet
(7) Turbine side of turbocharger
(8) Compressor side of turbocharger
(9) Air inlet from the air cleaner
(10) Inlet valve
(11) Exhaust valve

The components of the air inlet and exhaust system control the quality of air and the amount of air that is available for combustion. The air inlet and exhaust system consists of the following components:

  • Air cleaner

  • Turbocharger

  • Aftercooler

  • Inlet manifold

  • Cylinder head, injectors, and glow plugs

  • Valves and valve system components

  • Piston and cylinder

  • Exhaust manifold

Air is drawn in through the air cleaner into the air inlet of the turbocharger (9) by the turbocharger compressor wheel (8). The air is compressed and heated to about 150 °C (300 °F) before the air is forced to the aftercooler (5). As the air flows through the aftercooler the temperature of the compressed air lowers to about 50 °C (120 °F). Cooling of the inlet air increases combustion efficiency. Increased combustion efficiency helps achieve the following benefits:

  • Lower fuel consumption

  • Increased horsepower output

  • Reduced particulate emission

From the aftercooler, air is forced into the inlet manifold (4). Air flow from the inlet manifold to the cylinders is controlled by inlet valves (10). There are two inlet valves and two exhaust valves for each cylinder. The inlet valves open when the piston moves down on the intake stroke. When the inlet valves open, cooled compressed air from the inlet port is forced into the cylinder. The complete cycle consists of four strokes:

  • Inlet

  • Compression

  • Power

  • Exhaust

On the compression stroke, the piston moves back up the cylinder and the inlet valves (10) close. The cool compressed air is compressed further. This additional compression generates more heat.

Note: If the cold starting system is operating, the glow plugs (3) will also heat the air in the cylinder.

Just before the piston reaches the TC position, the ECM operates the electronic unit injector. Fuel is injected into the cylinder. The air/fuel mixture ignites. The ignition of the gases initiates the power stroke. Both the inlet and the exhaust valves are closed and the expanding gases force the piston downward toward the bottom center (BC) position.

From the BC position, the piston moves upward. This initiates the exhaust stroke. The exhaust valves open. The exhaust gases are forced through the open exhaust valves into the exhaust manifold.

Exhaust gases from exhaust manifold (1) enter the turbine side of the turbocharger in order to turn turbocharger turbine wheel (7). The turbine wheel is connected to the shaft that drives the compressor wheel. Exhaust gases from the turbocharger pass through exhaust outlet (6), a silencer, and an exhaust pipe.

Turbocharger



Illustration 2g01263770
Turbocharger
(1) Air intake
(2) Compressor housing
(3) Compressor wheel
(4) Bearing
(5) Oil inlet port
(6) Bearing
(7) Turbine housing
(8) Turbine wheel
(9) Exhaust outlet
(10) Oil outlet port
(11) Exhaust inlet

The turbocharger is mounted on the outlet of the exhaust manifold in one of two positions on the right side of the engine, toward the top of the engine or to the side of the engine. The exhaust gas from the exhaust manifold enters the exhaust inlet (11) and passes through the turbine housing (7) of the turbocharger. Energy from the exhaust gas causes the turbine wheel (8) to rotate. The turbine wheel is connected by a shaft to the compressor wheel (3).

As the turbine wheel rotates, the compressor wheel is rotated. This causes the intake air to be pressurized through the compressor housing (2) of the turbocharger.



Illustration 3g03531078
Typical example
(12) Actuating lever
(13) Wastegate actuator
(14) Line (boost pressure)

When the load on the engine increases, more fuel is injected into the cylinders. The combustion of this additional fuel produces more exhaust gases. The additional exhaust gases cause the turbine and the compressor wheels of the turbocharger to turn faster. As the compressor wheel turns faster, air is compressed to a higher pressure and more air is forced into the cylinders. The increased flow of air into the cylinders allows the fuel to be burnt with greater efficiency. This produces more power.

A wastegate is installed on the turbine housing of the turbocharger. The wastegate is a valve that allows exhaust gas to bypass the turbine wheel of the turbocharger. The operation of the wastegate is dependent on the pressurized air (boost pressure) from the turbocharger compressor. The boost pressure acts on a diaphragm that is spring loaded in the wastegate actuator which varies the amount of exhaust gas that flows into the turbine.

The turbocharger has a wastegate which is controlled by a diaphragm. One side of this diaphragm is open to the atmosphere. The other side of this diaphragm is connected to the boost pressure in the inlet manifold.

The shaft that connects the turbine to the compressor wheel rotates in bearings (4) and (6). The bearings require oil under pressure for lubrication and cooling. The oil that flows to the lubricating oil inlet port (5) passes through the center of the turbocharger which retains the bearings. The oil exits the turbocharger from the lubricating oil outlet port (10) and returns to the oil pan.

Crankcase Breather

The engine crankcase breather can be a filtered system or a non-filtered system.

The crankcase breather system can consist of two main elements, a primary separator that is mounted in the valve mechanism cover and a filtered canister that is mounted on the cylinder head. The gases exit the crankcase through the valve mechanism cover. The gases then pass through the primary separator. The primary separator removes most of the liquid oil from the gas. The liquid oil is then returned to the engine.

The gas then passes through the filter element before exiting to atmosphere in an open breather system.

Any liquid oil is captured by the filtered canister. The canister should be replaced at certain service intervals. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual for more information.

Valve System Components



Illustration 4g03347202
Valve system components
(1) Bridge
(2) Rocker arm
(3) Pushrod
(4) Lifter
(5) Camshaft
(6) Valve
(7) Spring

The valve system components control the flow of inlet air into the cylinders during engine operation. The valve system components also control the flow of exhaust gases out of the cylinders during engine operation.

The crankshaft gear drives the camshaft gear through an idler gear. The camshaft (5) must be timed to the crankshaft in order to get the correct relation between the piston movement and the valve movement.

The camshaft (5) has two camshaft lobes for each cylinder. The lobes operate either a pair of inlet valves or a pair of exhaust valves. As the camshaft turns, lobes on the camshaft cause the lifter (4) to move the pushrod (3) up and down. Upward movement of the pushrod against rocker arm (2) results in a downward movement that acts on the valve bridge (1). This action opens a pair of valves (6) which compresses the valve springs (7). When the camshaft has rotated to the peak of the lobe, the valves are fully open. When the camshaft rotates further, the two valve springs (7) under compression start to expand. The valve stems are under tension of the springs. The stems are pushed upward in order to maintain contact with the valve bridge (1). The continued rotation of the camshaft causes the rocker arm (2), the pushrods (3) and the lifters (4) to move downward until the lifter reaches the bottom of the lobe. The valves (6) are now closed. The cycle is repeated for all the valves on each cylinder.