C0.5, C0.7, C1.1/3011C, C1.5/3013C, C1.6 and C2.2/3024C/3024CT Industrial Engines and Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Troubleshooting Caterpillar


Troubleshooting
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1.1. Introduction
2.1. Troubleshooting The Fuel Injection Nozzles On The Engine
3.2. The engine is difficult to start or the engine runs rough.
4.3. Probable Cause
5.2. The engine exhaust has too much black smoke.
6.3. Probable Cause
7.2. The engine has lost power and the engine uses too much fuel.
8.3. Probable Cause
9.2. The engine is misfiring, running rough, or running poorly.
10.3. Probable Cause
11.1. Troubleshooting Fuel Injection Nozzles on a Nozzle Tester
12.2. Back leakage
13.2. The fuel injection nozzle does not inject fuel in the correct quantity or in the correct pattern.
14.3. Probable Cause
15.1. Troubleshooting the Turbocharger
16.2. The engine lacks power.
17.3. Probable Cause
18.2. The engine exhaust has excessive black smoke.
19.3. Probable Cause
20.2. The engine exhaust has excessive blue smoke.
21.3. Probable Cause
22.2. The engine uses an excessive amount of engine oil.
23.3. Probable Cause
24.2. Excessive engine oil exists at the end of the turbine.
25.3. Probable Cause
26.2. Excessive engine oil exists at the compressor end of the turbocharger.
27.3. Probable Cause
28.2. Engine oil exists in the exhaust manifold.
29.3. Probable Cause
30.2. Lack of lubrication to the turbocharger
31.3. Probable Cause
32.2. The inside of the intake manifold is wet.
33.3. Probable Cause
34.2. Damaged compressor impeller of the turbocharger
35.3. Probable Cause
36.2. Damaged to the turbine
37.3. Probable Cause
38.2. The rotating assembly of the turbocharger does not rotate freely.
39.3. Probable Cause
40.2. Worn bearings, bearing bores, and journals
41.3. Probable Cause
42.2. The turbocharger makes excessive noise.
43.3. Probable Cause
44.2. Sludge or carbon deposits in the bearing housing
45.3. Probable Cause
46.1. Troubleshooting the Engine
47.2. The engine will not start.
48.3. Probable Cause
49.2. The engine starts and the engine runs for a brief period of time and the engine stops.
50.3. Probable Cause
51.2. The engine misfires or the engine runs rough.
52.3. Probable Cause
53.2. The engine runs evenly, but the engine loses power.
54.3. Probable Cause
55.2. The engine lacks power.
56.3. Probable Cause
57.2. The engine has excessive vibration.
58.3. Probable Cause
59.2. The engine has excessive combustion noise.
60.3. Probable Cause
61.2. The engine has excessive valve compartment noise.
62.3. Probable Cause
63.2. Engine oil is in the cooling system.
64.3. Probable Cause
65.2. Engine knock occurs.
66.3. Probable Cause
67.2. The rocker arm has insufficient movement and the valve lash exceeds the specification.
68.3. Probable Cause
69.2. A cylinder head valve is loose.
70.3. Probable Cause
71.2. Oil condenses at the exhaust.
72.3. Probable Cause
73.2. The valve lash is less than the required specification.
74.3. Probable Cause
75.2. Engine components have early wear.
76.3. Probable Cause
77.2. Coolant is in the engine oil.
78.3. Probable Cause
79.2. The engine exhaust has too much black smoke or too much gray smoke.
80.3. Probable Cause
81.2. The engine exhaust has too much white smoke or too much blue smoke.
82.3. Probable Cause
83.2. The engine has low oil pressure.
84.3. Probable Cause
85.2. The engine oil pressure is too high.
86.3. Probable Cause
87.2. The engine uses too much engine oil.
88.3. Probable Cause
89.2. The engine overheats.
90.3. Probable Cause
91.2. The exhaust temperature is too high.
92.3. Probable Cause
93.2. The starting motor does not turn or the starting motor turns too slowly.
94.3. Probable Cause
95.2. The starting motor turns, but the pinion gear does not engage the flywheel ring gear.
96.3. Probable Cause
97.2. The engine does not crank or the engine rotates slowly when the keyswitch is in the start position.
98.3. Probable Cause
99.2. The starting motor continues to run after the ignition switch is released.
100.3. Probable Cause
101.2. The pinion gear does not disengage after the engine starts to run.
102.3. Probable Cause
103.2. The alternator does not charge the battery or the alternator charge rate is slow or irregular.
104.3. Probable Cause
105.2. The alternator charges the battery to a voltage that is too high.
106.3. Probable Cause
107.2. The alternator is noisy.
108.3. Probable Cause

Introduction

Troubleshooting can be difficult. To make a repair to a problem, refer to the possible cause and the corrective action. The most common problems are identified in this troubleshooting manual. The symptoms, causes, and guidance for solving the problems are given.

The list of problems, causes and corrections will only give an indication of the location of a possible problem. There is also a list that shows some of the repairs that are required.

Sometimes additional repair work is required beyond the repair which is recommended. Frequently, a problem does not exist in isolation. The problem can be a result of wear or of damage to several parts which operate together as part of a system.

Service personnel may remember similar complaints which were corrected by a previous method of troubleshooting. A similar complaint can have a different cause.

Get a good description of the problem from the operator and/or the person that owns the vehicle. Knowing the details of the problem can save time. This will make the repair job faster and easier.

All possible problems and the probable causes cannot be listed. The technician must follow a logical process of eliminating possible causes and of identifying the specific causes of the problems.

Troubleshooting The Fuel Injection Nozzles On The Engine

Note: Be careful when you are handling the fuel injection nozzles in order to prevent damage to the orifices, the threads, and other surfaces. When a fuel injection nozzle is installed, make sure that all surfaces and threads are clean.

Only personnel that have the proper training should disassemble the fuel injection nozzles. Only personnel that have the proper training should perform repairs to the fuel injection nozzle.

Replace the fuel injection nozzle if the fuel injection nozzle cannot be adjusted in order to operate correctly.

Refer to Specifications, "Fuel Injection Nozzles" for additional information.

The engine is difficult to start or the engine runs rough.

Probable Cause

  1. The fuel injection nozzle does not seal correctly in the cylinder head.

    Make sure that the gaskets, the insert and the mating surface of the cylinder head are clean. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzle is tightened to the correct torque in the threaded hole of the cylinder head.

  1. There is debris on the mating surface of the cylinder head with the gaskets or the insert. Make sure that extra gaskets were removed from the threaded recess in the cylinder head for the fuel injection nozzle.

    Remove any extra gaskets or debris.

  1. The connections of the high pressure fuel line leak.

    Tighten the fittings of the high pressure fuel line.

  1. The fuel injection nozzle does not operate correctly.

    Make sure that the components of the fuel injection nozzle are tightened to the correct torques. Make sure that the gaskets and the insert are positioned correctly. Test the fuel injection nozzle on a nozzle tester in order to measure the pressure setting.

  1. The incorrect fuel injection nozzle is installed.

    Make sure that all fuel injection nozzles are the correct replacement parts for the engine. Refer to the Parts Manual for the correct replacement part.

The engine exhaust has too much black smoke.

Probable Cause

  1. Extra gaskets were not removed from the threaded recess in the cylinder head for the fuel injection nozzle. There is debris on the mating surface of the cylinder head with the gaskets or the insert.

    Remove any extra gaskets or debris.

  1. The fuel injection nozzle does not operate correctly.

    Make sure that the components of the fuel injection nozzle are tightened to the correct torques. Make sure that the gaskets and the insert are positioned correctly. Test the fuel injection nozzle on a nozzle tester in order to measure the pressure setting.

  1. The incorrect fuel injection nozzle is installed.

    Make sure that all fuel injection nozzles are the correct replacement parts for the engine. Refer to the Parts Manual for the correct replacement part.

The engine has lost power and the engine uses too much fuel.

Probable Cause

  1. The fuel injection nozzle does not seal in the cylinder head.

    Make sure that the gaskets, the insert and the mating surface of the cylinder head are clean. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzle is tightened to the correct torque in the threaded hole of the cylinder head.

  1. Extra gaskets were not removed from the threaded recess in the cylinder head for the fuel injection nozzle. There is debris on the sealing surface for the fuel injection nozzle.

    Remove any extra gaskets or debris.

  1. The connections of the high pressure fuel line leak.

    Tighten the fittings of the high pressure fuel line.

  1. The fuel injection nozzle does not operate correctly.

    Make sure that the components of the fuel injection nozzle are tightened to the correct torques. Make sure that the gaskets and the insert are positioned correctly. Test the fuel injection nozzle on a nozzle tester in order to measure the pressure setting.

    Test the fuel injection nozzle on a nozzle tester.

  1. The incorrect fuel injection nozzle is installed.

    Make sure that all fuel injection nozzles have the correct code for the engine.

  1. A connection of the fuel return line leaks.

    Inspect all connections of the low pressure fuel line for tightening to the correct torque.

The engine is misfiring, running rough, or running poorly.

Probable Cause

  1. The fuel injection nozzle does not seal in the cylinder head.

    Make sure that the gaskets, the insert and the mating surface of the cylinder head are clean. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzle is tightened to the correct torque in the threaded hole of the cylinder head.

  1. Extra gaskets were not removed from the threaded recess in the cylinder head for the fuel injection nozzle. There is debris on the sealing surface for the fuel injection nozzle.

    Remove any extra gaskets or debris.

  1. The connections of the high pressure fuel line leak.

    Tighten the fittings of the high pressure fuel line.

  1. The fuel injection nozzle does not operate correctly.

    Make sure that the components of the fuel injection nozzle are tightened to the correct torques. Make sure that the gaskets and the insert are positioned correctly. Test the fuel injection nozzle on a nozzle tester in order to measure the pressure setting.

    Test the fuel injection nozzle on a nozzle tester.

  1. The incorrect fuel injection nozzle is installed.

    Make sure that all fuel injection nozzles have the correct code for the engine.

  1. A restriction exists in the high pressure fuel line.

    Inspect all high pressure fuel lines for damage.

  1. A seat washer that is not the correct thickness is installed.

    The correct seat washer is 2.0 mm (0.08 inch) thick.

Troubleshooting Fuel Injection Nozzles on a Nozzle Tester

Note: Be careful when you are handling the fuel injection nozzles in order to prevent damage to the orifices, the threads, and other surfaces. When a fuel injection nozzle is installed, make sure that all surfaces and threads are clean.

Only personnel that have the proper training should disassemble the fuel injection nozzles. Only personnel that have the proper training should perform repairs to the fuel injection nozzles.

Replace the fuel injection nozzle if the fuel injection nozzle cannot be adjusted in order to operate correctly.

Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Nozzles" topic for additional information.

Back leakage

  1. Fuel leaks through the threaded connection of the body and the nozzle nut.

    Make sure that the threads are clean. Tighten the body to the correct torque.

  1. Debris or damage exists on the orifices.

    Visually inspect the components of the valve for carbon pitting, for scoring, or for other damage. Clean the surface of the orifices with solvent. Replace the fuel injection nozzles if corrosion exists.

The fuel injection nozzle does not inject fuel in the correct quantity or in the correct pattern.

Probable Cause

  1. The setting of the opening pressure is incorrect.

    Test the setting of the opening pressure. Adjust the setting to the correct pressure.

  1. The fuel injection nozzle is stuck.

    Debris or damage exists on the fuel injection nozzle.

  1. The orifices are blocked.

    Inspect the orifices for carbon buildup. The fuel injection nozzle must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. The passage for the fuel return is obstructed.

    Clean the passage in order to remove any carbon buildup or other debris.

Troubleshooting the Turbocharger

The engine lacks power.

Probable Cause

  1. The air filter element is dirty.

    The air filter element must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the tube between the air filter and the turbocharger.

    Find the restriction and repair or replace the component.

  1. An air leak or a restriction exists in the line between the turbocharger and the intake manifold.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the exhaust system.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbocharger is loose or the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are loose.

    Correctly position the turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

  1. The intake manifold is cracked, loose or the flange is distorted.

    The intake manifold must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The exhaust manifold is cracked, loose, or the flange is distorted.

    The exhaust manifold must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbine housing is damaged or restricted.

    The turbine housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. The bearings of the turbocharger are worn.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. Excessive dirt exists in the compressor housing.

    Clean the compressor housing.

  1. Carbon has collected behind the rotor of the turbine.

    Remove the carbon.

  1. The fuel injection pump is not operating correctly.

    The fuel injection pump must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The fuel injection nozzles are worn or damaged.

    The fuel injection nozzles must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The inlet valves and the exhaust valves are burned.

    Replace the inlet valves and the exhaust valves. Determine the cause of the damage to the valves.

  1. The piston rings are worn.

    Replace the piston rings.

The engine exhaust has excessive black smoke.

Probable Cause

  1. The air filter element is dirty.

    The air filter element must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the tube between the air filter and the turbocharger.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbocharger is loose or the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are loose.

    Correctly position the turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

  1. The intake manifold is cracked, loose or the flange is distorted.

    The intake manifold must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The drain pipe for the engine oil is restricted.

    The drain pipe must be repaired or replaced.

  1. Air or combustion gas is leaking through the seals of the turbocharger.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. The bearings of the turbocharger are worn.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. Excessive dirt exists in the compressor housing.

    Clean the compressor housing.

  1. Carbon has collected behind the rotor of the turbine.

    Remove the carbon.

The engine exhaust has excessive blue smoke.

Probable Cause

  1. The air filter element is dirty.

    The air filter element must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. The crankcase breather is restricted.

    The crankcase breather (if equipped), or the tubing must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the tube between the air filter and the turbocharger.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbocharger is loose or the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are loose.

    Correctly position the turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

  1. The intake manifold is cracked, loose or the flange is distorted.

    The intake manifold must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The drain pipe for the engine oil is restricted.

    The drain pipe must be repaired or replaced.

  1. Air or combustion gas is leaking through the seals of the turbocharger.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. The bearings of the turbocharger are worn.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. Excessive dirt exists in the compressor housing.

    Clean the compressor housing.

  1. Carbon has collected behind the rotor of the turbine.

    Remove the carbon.

  1. Excessive anti-corrosion fluid exists in the turbocharger. This condition only exists on a new engine which has not been operated.

    Clean the turbocharger in order to remove the anti-corrosion fluid.

  1. The high idle operates for an excessive period of time.

    The fuel injection pump must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the bearing housing of the turbocharger.

    The bearing housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

The engine uses an excessive amount of engine oil.

Probable Cause

  1. The air filter element is dirty.

    The air filter element must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. The crankcase breather is restricted.

    The crankcase breather (if equipped), or the tubing must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbocharger is loose or the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are loose.

    Correctly position the turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

  1. The incorrect type of engine oil is being used.

    Drain the engine oil. Install the correct quantity and type of engine oil.

  1. The drain pipe for the engine oil is restricted.

    The drain pipe must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbine housing is damaged or restricted.

    The turbine housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. The bearings of the turbocharger are worn.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. The piston rings are worn.

    Replace the piston rings.

  1. Engine oil is leaking from the supply line.

    The supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The high idle operates for an excessive period of time.

    The fuel injection pump must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the bearing housing of the turbocharger.

    The bearing housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

Excessive engine oil exists at the end of the turbine.

Probable Cause

  1. The crankcase breather is restricted.

    The crankcase breather (if equipped), or the tubing must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the exhaust system.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbocharger is loose or the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are loose.

    Correctly position the turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

  1. The drain pipe for the engine oil is restricted.

    The drain pipe must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. The turbine housing is damaged or restricted.

    The turbine housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. The bearings of the turbocharger are worn.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. Carbon has collected behind the rotor of the turbine.

    Remove the carbon.

  1. The piston rings are worn.

    Replace the piston rings.

  1. Excessive anti-corrosion fluid exists in the turbocharger. This condition only exists on a new engine which has not been operated.

    Clean the turbocharger in order to remove the anti-corrosion fluid.

  1. The high idle operates for an excessive period of time.

    The fuel injection pump must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the bearing housing of the turbocharger.

    The bearing housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

Excessive engine oil exists at the compressor end of the turbocharger.

Probable Cause

  1. The air filter element is dirty.

    The air filter element must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. The crankcase breather is restricted.

    The crankcase breather (if equipped), or the tubing must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the tube between the air filter and the turbocharger.

    The component must be cleaned and replaced.

  1. A air leak or restriction exists in the line between the turbocharger and the intake manifold.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbocharger is loose or the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are loose.

    Correctly position the turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

  1. Air or combustion gas is leaking through the seals of the turbocharger.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. The bearings of the turbocharger are worn.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. Excessive dirt exists in the compressor housing.

    Clean the compressor housing.

  1. The piston rings are worn.

    Replace the piston rings.

  1. Excessive anti-corrosion fluid exists in the turbocharger. This condition only exists on a new engine which has not been operated.

    Clean the turbocharger in order to remove the anti-corrosion fluid.

  1. The high idle operates for an excessive period of time.

    The fuel injection pump must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the bearing housing of the turbocharger.

    The bearing housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

Engine oil exists in the exhaust manifold.

Probable Cause

  1. The crankcase breather is restricted.

    The crankcase breather (if equipped), or the tubing must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the exhaust system.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The drain pipe for the engine oil is restricted.

    The drain pipe must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbine housing is damaged or restricted.

    The turbine housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. The bearings of the turbocharger are worn.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. Carbon has collected behind the rotor of the turbine.

    Remove the carbon.

  1. The piston rings are worn.

    Replace the piston rings.

  1. The high idle operates for an excessive period of time.

    The fuel injection pump must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the bearing housing of the turbocharger.

    The bearing housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

Lack of lubrication to the turbocharger

Probable Cause

  1. The turbocharger is loose or the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are loose.

    Correctly position the turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

  1. The flow of engine oil is delayed to the turbocharger when the engine is started. Insufficient oil flows to the turbocharger when the engine is running.

    Check the following components for correct operation:

    • Engine oil pump

    • Engine oil bypass valve

    • Engine oil filter

    • Viscosity of the engine oil

    • Restrictions in oil lines

  1. The engine oil is dirty.

    Drain the engine oil. Install the correct type of engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter.

  1. The incorrect type of engine oil is installed.

    Drain the engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter. Install the correct type of engine oil.

  1. The oil supply line from the engine oil pan is restricted.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The engine rpm increases too rapidly when the engine is started.

    Check the fuel injection pump for correct operation and settings.

  1. The high idle operates an insufficient period of time.

    Check the fuel injection pump for correct operation and settings.

  1. Engine oil is leaking from the oil supply line.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the bearing housing of the turbocharger.

    The bearing housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the engine oil filter.

    Clean the engine oil filter base and the housing for the engine oil filter. Check the operation of the engine oil bypass valve in the engine oil filter base. Replace the engine oil filter.

  1. The engine stopped too soon from a high load condition.

    Check the following components for correct operation or damage:

    • Compressor impeller of the turbocharger

    • Cooling system

    • Fuel injection pump

    • Air/fuel ratio control

    • Valve lash

    • Fuel injection nozzles

The inside of the intake manifold is wet.

Probable Cause

  1. The air filter element is dirty.

    The air filter element must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. The crankcase breather is restricted.

    The crankcase breather (if equipped), or the tubing must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. The air filter element is not sealed correctly. A connection between the air filter and the turbocharger is loose.

    Inspect the air filter element and the air supply line to the turbocharger for correct installation.

  1. A restriction exists in the tube between the air filter and the turbocharger.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. An air leak or restriction exists in the line between the turbocharger and the intake manifold.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the exhaust system.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbocharger is loose or the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are loose.

    Correctly position the turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

  1. The exhaust manifold is cracked, loose, or the flange is distorted.

    The exhaust manifold must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The drain line for the engine oil is restricted.

    The drain line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbine housing is damaged or restricted.

    The turbine housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. Air or combustion gas is leaking through the seals of the turbocharger.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. The bearings of the turbocharger are worn.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. Excessive dirt exists in the compressor housing.

    Clean the compressor housing.

  1. The piston rings are worn.

    Replace the piston rings.

  1. A restriction exists in the bearing housing of the turbocharger.

    The bearing housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. Fuel leakage exists from the air inlet heater.

    Test the air inlet heater for leakage.

  1. The backplate of the compressor is cracked.

    The backplate of the compressor must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

Damaged compressor impeller of the turbocharger

Probable Cause

  1. The air filter element is not sealed correctly. A connection between the air filter and the turbocharger is loose.

    Inspect the air filter element and the air supply line to the turbocharger for correct installation.

  1. A restriction exists in the tube between the air filter and the turbocharger.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbocharger is loose or the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are loose.

    Correctly position the turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

  1. The flow of the engine oil is delayed to the turbocharger when the engine is started. Insufficient oil flows to the turbocharger when the engine is running.

    Check the following components for correct operation:

    • Engine oil pump

    • Engine oil bypass valve

    • Engine oil filter

    • Viscosity of the engine oil

    • Restrictions in the oil lines

  1. The incorrect type of engine oil is installed.

    Drain the engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter. Install the correct type of engine oil.

  1. The oil supply line from the engine oil pan is restricted.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The bearings of the turbocharger are worn.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. Excessive dirt exists in the compressor housing.

    Clean the compressor housing.

  1. The engine rpm increases too rapidly when the engine is started.

    Check the fuel injection pump for correct operation and settings.

  1. The period of time at high idle is insufficient.

    Check the fuel injection pump for correct operation and settings.

  1. Engine oil is leaking from the oil supply line.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the bearing housing of the turbocharger.

    The bearing housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the engine oil filter.

    Clean the engine oil filter base and the housing for the engine oil filter. Check the operation of the engine oil bypass valve in the engine oil filter base. Replace the engine oil filter.

  1. The engine stopped too soon from a high load condition.

    Check the following components for correct operation or damage:

    • Compressor impeller of the turbocharger

    • Cooling system

    • Fuel injection pump

    • Air/fuel ratio control

    • Valve lash

    • Fuel injection nozzles

Damaged to the turbine

Probable Cause

  1. A restriction exists in the exhaust system.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbocharger is loose or the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are loose.

    Correctly position the turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

  1. The flow of the engine oil is delayed to the turbocharger when the engine is started. Insufficient engine oil flows to the turbocharger when the engine is running.

    Check the following components for correct operation:

    • Engine oil pump

    • Engine oil bypass valve

    • Engine oil filter

    • Viscosity of the engine oil

    • Restrictions in oil lines

  1. The engine oil is dirty.

    Drain the engine oil. Install the correct type of engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter.

  1. The incorrect type of engine oil is installed.

    Drain the engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter. Install the correct type of engine oil.

  1. The oil supply line from the engine oil pan is restricted.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The incorrect type of engine oil is installed.

    Drain the engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter. Install the correct type of engine oil.

  1. The oil supply line from the engine oil pan is restricted.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbine housing is damaged or restricted.

    The turbine housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. The bearings of the turbocharger are worn.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. Carbon has collected behind the rotor of the turbine.

    Remove the carbon.

  1. The engine rpm increases too rapidly when the engine is started.

    Check the fuel injection pump for correct operation and settings.

  1. The period of time at high idle is insufficient.

    Check the fuel injection pump for correct operation and settings.

  1. The fuel injection pump is not operating correctly.

    The fuel injection pump must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The inlet valves and the exhaust valves are burned.

    Replace the inlet valves and the exhaust valves. Determine the cause of the damage to the valves.

  1. Engine oil is leaking from the oil supply line.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the bearing housing of the turbocharger.

    The bearing housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the engine oil filter.

    Clean the engine oil filter base and the housing for the engine oil filter. Check the operation of the engine oil bypass valve. Replace the engine oil filter.

  1. The engine stopped too soon from a high load condition.

    Check the following components for correct operation or damage:

    • Compressor impeller of the turbocharger

    • Coolant system

    • Fuel injection pump

    • Air/fuel ratio control

    • Valve lash

    • Fuel injection nozzles

The rotating assembly of the turbocharger does not rotate freely.

Probable Cause

  1. The element of the air filter is not sealed correctly. A connection between the air filter and the turbocharger is loose.

    Inspect the element of the air filter and the air supply line to the turbocharger for correct installation.

  1. A restriction exists in the tube between the air filter and the turbocharger.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the exhaust system.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbocharger is loose or the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are loose.

    Correctly position the turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

  1. The flow of the engine oil is delayed to the turbocharger when the engine is started. Insufficient engine oil flows to the turbocharger when the engine is running.

    Check the following components for correct operation:

    • Engine oil pump

    • Engine oil bypass valve

    • Engine oil filter

    • Viscosity of the engine oil

    • Restrictions in oil lines

  1. The engine oil is dirty.

    Drain the engine oil. Install the correct type of engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter.

  1. The incorrect type of engine oil is installed.

    Drain the engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter. Install the correct type of engine oil.

  1. The oil supply line from the engine oil pan is restricted.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbine housing is damaged or restricted.

    The turbine housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. The bearings of the turbocharger are worn.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. Excessive dirt exists in the compressor housing.

    Clean the compressor housing.

  1. Carbon has collected behind the rotor of the turbine.

    Remove the carbon.

  1. The engine rpm increases too rapidly when the engine is started.

    Check the fuel injection pump for correct operation and settings.

  1. The period of time at high idle is insufficient.

    Check the fuel injection pump for correct operation and settings.

  1. Engine oil is leaking from the oil supply line.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the bearing housing of the turbocharger.

    The bearing housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the engine oil filter.

    Clean the engine oil filter base and the housing for the engine oil filter. Check the operation of the engine oil bypass valve. Replace the engine oil filter.

  1. The engine stopped too soon from a high load condition.

    Check the following components for correct operation or damage:

    • Compressor impeller of the turbocharger

    • Coolant system

    • Fuel injection pump

    • Air/fuel ratio control

    • Valve lash

    • Fuel injection nozzles

Worn bearings, bearing bores, and journals

Probable Cause

  1. A restriction exists in the tube between the air filter and the turbocharger.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the exhaust system.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbocharger is loose or the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are loose.

    Correctly position the turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

  1. The flow of the engine oil is delayed to the turbocharger when the engine is started. Insufficient oil flows to the turbocharger when the engine is running.

    Check the following components for correct operation:

    • Engine oil pump

    • Engine oil bypass valve

    • Engine oil filter

    • Viscosity of the engine oil

    • Restrictions in oil lines

  1. The engine oil is dirty.

    Drain the engine oil. Install the correct type of engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter.

  1. The incorrect type of engine oil is installed.

    Drain the engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter. Install the correct type of engine oil.

  1. The oil supply line from the engine oil pan is restricted.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The engine rpm increases too rapidly when the engine is started.

    Check the fuel injection pump for correct operation and settings.

  1. The period of time at high idle is insufficient.

    Check the fuel injection pump for correct operation and settings.

  1. engine oil is leaking from the oil supply line.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the engine oil filter.

    Clean the engine oil filter base and the housing for the engine oil filter. Check the operation of the engine oil bypass valve. Replace the engine oil filter.

  1. The engine stopped too soon from a high load condition.

    Check the following components for correct operation or damage:

    • Compressor impeller of the turbocharger

    • Coolant system

    • Fuel injection pump

    • Air/fuel ratio control

    • Valve lash

    • Fuel injection nozzles

The turbocharger makes excessive noise.

Probable Cause

  1. The air filter element is dirty.

    The air filter element must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. The air filter element is not sealed correctly. A connection between the air filter and the turbocharger is loose.

    Inspect the air filter element and the air supply line to the turbocharger for correct installation.

  1. A restriction exists in the tube between the air filter and the turbocharger.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A air leak or restriction exists in the line between the turbocharger and the intake manifold.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the exhaust system.

    The component must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbocharger is loose or the clamps and bolts on the turbocharger are loose.

    Correctly position the turbocharger and tighten the clamps and bolts.

  1. The intake manifold is cracked, loose or the flange is distorted.

    The intake manifold must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The exhaust manifold is cracked, loose, or the flange is distorted.

    The exhaust manifold must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The flow of the engine oil is delayed to the turbocharger when the engine is started. Insufficient oil flows to the turbocharger when the engine is running.

    Check the following components for correct operation:

    • Engine oil pump

    • Engine oil bypass valve

    • Engine oil filter

    • Viscosity of the engine oil

    • Restrictions in oil lines

  1. The engine oil is dirty.

    Drain the engine oil. Install the correct type of engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter.

  1. The incorrect type of engine oil is installed.

    Drain the engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter. Install the correct type of engine oil.

  1. The oil supply line from the engine oil pan is restricted.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbine housing is damaged or restricted.

    The turbine housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. The bearings of the turbocharger are worn.

    Replace the turbocharger.

  1. Excessive dirt exists in the compressor housing.

    Clean the compressor housing.

  1. Carbon has collected behind the rotor of the turbine.

    Remove the carbon.

  1. The engine rpm increases too rapidly when the engine is started.

    Check the fuel injection pump for correct operation and settings.

  1. The period of time at high idle is insufficient.

    Check the fuel injection pump for correct operation and settings.

  1. Engine oil is leaking from the oil supply line.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the bearing housing of the turbocharger.

    The bearing housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the engine oil filter.

    Clean the engine oil filter base and the housing for the engine oil filter. Check the operation of the engine oil bypass valve. Replace the engine oil filter.

  1. The engine stopped too soon from a high load condition.

    Check the following components for correct operation or damage:

    • Compressor impeller of the turbocharger

    • Coolant system

    • Fuel injection pump

    • Air/fuel ratio control

    • Valve lash

    • Fuel injection nozzles

Sludge or carbon deposits in the bearing housing

Probable Cause

  1. The crankcase breather is restricted.

    The crankcase breather (if equipped), or the tubing must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. The flow of the engine oil is delayed to the turbocharger when the engine is started. Insufficient oil flows to the turbocharger when the engine is running.

    Check the following components for correct operation:

    • Engine oil pump

    • Engine oil bypass valve

    • Engine oil filter

    • Viscosity of the engine oil

    • Restrictions in oil lines

  1. The engine oil is dirty.

    Drain the engine oil. Install the correct type of engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter.

  1. The incorrect type of engine oil is installed.

    Drain the engine oil. Replace the engine oil filter. Install the correct type of engine oil.

  1. The oil supply line from the engine oil pan is restricted.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The turbine housing is damaged or restricted.

    The turbine housing must be repaired or the turbocharger must be replaced.

  1. The period of time at high idle is insufficient.

    Check the fuel injection pump for correct operation and settings.

  1. Engine oil is leaking from the oil supply line.

    The oil supply line must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A restriction exists in the engine oil filter.

    Clean the engine oil filter base and the housing for the engine oil filter. Check the operation of the engine oil bypass valve. Replace the engine oil filter.

  1. The engine stopped too soon from a high load condition.

    Check the following components for correct operation or damage:

    • Compressor impeller of the turbocharger

    • Coolant system

    • Fuel injection pump

    • Air/fuel ratio control

    • Valve lash

    • Fuel injection nozzles

Troubleshooting the Engine

When you are troubleshooting the engine, refer to the Specifications Module and the Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting Module for additional information.

The engine will not start.

Probable Cause

  1. The engine starting procedure was incorrectly followed.

    Ensure that the engine starting procedure is correctly followed.

  1. The manual valve in the fuel line is closed.

    Open the valve.

  1. The fuel level is low in the fuel tank. Air is in the fuel system.

    Fill the fuel tank with fuel. Remove the air from the fuel system.

  1. The fuel is contaminated.

    The fuel contains water, dirt, ice, or wax. Replace the fuel filters. Replace the fuel in the fuel tank with clean fuel.

  1. Engine cranking speed is too slow.

    The engine oil is too thick. The connections of the battery cables to the starting motor are loose.

  1. The glow plugs for the fuel injection pump do not operate correctly.

    Inspect the cable connections and the electrical connections of the glow plugs and the electrical components of the starting aid circuit. Test the glow plugs for correct operation.

  1. The fuel shutoff solenoid is not operating correctly.

    Ensure that the fuel shutoff solenoid operates correctly. Replace a fuel shutoff solenoid that is suspect.

  1. The fuel transfer pump is not operating correctly. The fuel transfer pump was installed when the lobe of the camshaft was at maximum lift.

    Check the fuel pressure when the engine is cranking. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Transfer Pump" topic for additional information. Remove the fuel transfer pump if the fuel pressure is too low. The fuel transfer pump must be repaired or replaced.

    Install the fuel transfer pump with the lobe of the camshaft on minimum lift. Tighten the mounting bolts evenly.

  1. The fuel filter or the fuel lines are restricted. Excess water has built up in the fuel filter.

    Check fuel lines and the fuel filter. Drain any water from the fuel filter.

  1. The operation of the fuel injection pump is not correct.

    Check the timing of the fuel injection pump. Adjust the timing or replace the fuel injection pump. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Pump" topic. Check the timing of the drive gear for the fuel injection pump with the idler gear. The fuel injection pump must be repaired or replaced.

    Make sure that the linkage of the fuel rack operates correctly.

    Make sure that the high pressure fuel lines are connected to the fuel injection nozzles in the correct order.

    Make sure that the mounting bolts of the fuel injection pump are tightened to the correct torque. Inspect the fuel lines for leaks or for restrictions. The damaged fuel lines or fittings must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The governor and the fuel injection linkage are damaged. The governor and the fuel injection linkage are incorrectly assembled in the timing gear case.

    Adjust the linkage. Replace suspect parts.

  1. A fuel injection nozzle is not operating correctly.

    Run the engine at the rpm that gives maximum misfiring or rough running. Then, loosen a fuel line nut on the injection line for each cylinder. Loosen one nut at a time. Then, tighten that nut before the next fuel line nut is loosened. If loosening the fuel line nut does not affect the operation of the engine, the fuel injection nozzle is probably suspect. Test the fuel injection nozzle for that cylinder. Replace the suspect fuel injection nozzle.

    Make sure that all of the fuel injection nozzles are the correct type for the engine. Test the pressure setting of the fuel injection nozzles. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Nozzles" topic for additional information.

    Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are properly sealed in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are correctly aligned in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are tightened to the correct torque. Ensure that the gaskets and the seat washers are installed on the fuel injection nozzles correctly. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports are clean and free of debris. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports do not contain extra gaskets.

  1. The cylinders have low compression.

    Starting the engine may be difficult in warm weather. The engine may not start in cold weather. Low compression is most frequently caused by the following conditions:

    • Cylinder walls are worn or damaged.

    • Piston rings are worn or broken.

    • The piston height is incorrect.

    • The piston is damaged.

    • The fuel injection nozzles are not seated correctly.

    • The valve lash requires adjustment.

    • The fuel injection pump timing is incorrect.

    • The engine timing is incorrect.

    • When an inlet valve or an exhaust valve is fully seated, gases leak past the valve head.

  1. The glow plugs do not operate correctly. The engine floods in cold weather.

    Ensure that the glow plugs become hot when the ignition switch is in the START position.

The engine starts and the engine runs for a brief period of time and the engine stops.

Probable Cause

  1. The fuel filter or the fuel lines are restricted. Excess water has built up in the fuel filter.

    Check the fuel lines and the fuel filter. Replace the fuel filter. Drain any water from the fuel filter.

  1. The operation of the fuel transfer pump is not correct.

    Check the fuel pressure when the engine is cranking. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Transfer Pump" topic for additional information. Remove the fuel transfer pump if the fuel pressure is too low. The fuel transfer pump must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The air inlet or the exhaust system is restricted.

    Inspect the air inlet and the exhaust systems. Remove any restrictions.

  1. Air is in the fuel system.

    Find the air leak in the fuel system. Repair the fuel system.

The engine misfires or the engine runs rough.

Probable Cause

  1. The fuel pressure is low.

    Ensure that the fuel tank has enough fuel. Look for leaks or suspect bends in all of the fuel supply lines. Test the outlet pressure of the fuel transfer pump.

  1. Air is in the fuel system.

    Find the air leak in the fuel system. Repair the air leak.

  1. The valve lash is not correct.

    Adjust the valve lash.

  1. The operation of the fuel injection pump is not correct.

    Check the timing of the fuel injection pump. Adjust the timing or replace the fuel injection pump. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Pump" topic for additional information. The fuel injection pump must be repaired or replaced.

    Make sure that the linkage of the fuel rack operates correctly.

    Make sure that the high pressure fuel lines are connected to the fuel injection nozzles in the correct order.

    Make sure that the mounting bolts of the fuel injection pump are tightened to the correct torque. Inspect the fuel lines for leaks or for restrictions. The damaged fuel lines or fittings must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A fuel injection nozzle does not operate correctly.

    Run the engine at the rpm that gives maximum misfiring or rough running. Then, loosen a fuel line nut on the injection line for each cylinder. Loosen one nut at a time. Then, tighten that nut before the next fuel line nut is loosened. If loosening the fuel line nut does not affect the operation of the engine, the fuel injection nozzle is probably suspect. Test the fuel injection nozzle for that cylinder. Replace the suspect fuel injection nozzle.

    Make sure that all of the fuel injection nozzles are the correct type for the engine. Test the pressure setting of the fuel injection nozzles. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Nozzles" topic for additional information.

    Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are properly sealed in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are correctly aligned in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are tightened to the correct torque. Ensure that the gaskets and the seat washers are installed on the fuel injection nozzles correctly. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports are clean and free of debris. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports do not contain extra gaskets.

  1. The engine mounts are not correctly tightened or the engine mounts are not mounted correctly. This condition also causes vibration.

    Check the engine mounts for correct positioning. Check the bolts of the engine mounts for correct tightening.

  1. The fuel is contaminated with water, dirt, ice, or wax.

    Drain any water from the fuel tank and from the fuel filter. If the fuel is contaminated by dirt, ice, or wax, replace the fuel.

  1. The cylinders have low compression.

    Starting the engine may be difficult in warm weather. The engine may not start in cold weather. Low compression is most frequently caused by the following conditions:

    • Cylinder walls are worn or damaged.

    • Piston rings are worn or broken.

    • The piston height is incorrect.

    • The piston is damaged.

    • The fuel injection nozzles are not seated correctly.

    • The valve lash requires adjustment.

    • The fuel injection pump timing is incorrect.

    • The engine timing is incorrect.

    • When an inlet valve or an exhaust valve is fully seated, gases leak past the valve head.

The engine runs evenly, but the engine loses power.

Probable Cause

  1. The cylinders have low compression.

    Starting the engine may be difficult in warm weather. The engine may not start in cold weather. Low compression is most frequently caused by the following conditions:

    • Cylinder walls are worn or damaged.

    • Piston rings are worn or broken.

    • The piston height is incorrect.

    • The piston is damaged.

    • The fuel injection nozzles are not seated correctly.

    • The valve lash requires adjustment.

    • The fuel injection pump timing is incorrect.

    • The engine timing is incorrect.

    • When an inlet valve or an exhaust valve is fully seated, gases leak past the valve head.

  1. The operation of the fuel injection pump is not correct.

    Check the timing of the fuel injection pump. Adjust the timing or replace the fuel injection pump. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Pump" topic for additional information. The fuel injection pump must be repaired or replaced.

    Make sure that the linkage of the fuel rack operates correctly.

    Make sure that the high pressure fuel lines are connected to the fuel injection nozzles in the correct order.

    Make sure that the mounting bolts of the fuel injection pump are tightened to the correct torque. Inspect the fuel lines for leaks or for restrictions. The damaged fuel lines or fittings must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The valve lash is not correct.

    Adjust the valve lash.

  1. The air cleaner is restricted.

    The air cleaner must be repaired or the air cleaner must be replaced.

  1. Air is in the fuel system.

    Remove the air from the fuel system. Make sure that the fittings of the fuel lines are aligned. Make sure that the fittings of the fuel lines are tightened correctly.

  1. The fuel transfer pump is not operating correctly. The fuel transfer pump was installed when the lobe of the camshaft was at maximum lift.

    Check the fuel pressure when the engine is cranking. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Transfer Pump" topic for additional information. Remove the fuel transfer pump if the fuel pressure is too low. The fuel transfer pump must be repaired or replaced.

    Install the fuel transfer pump with the lobe of the camshaft on minimum lift. Tighten the mounting bolts evenly.

The engine lacks power.

Probable Cause

  1. Fuel of low quality is in the fuel system.

    Remove the fuel from the fuel tank. Install a new fuel filter. Put a good grade of clean fuel in the fuel tank.

  1. The fuel pressure is low.

    Make sure that sufficient fuel is in the fuel tank. Look for leaks or suspect bends in the fuel line between the fuel tank and the fuel transfer pump. Remove any air in the fuel system. Check the outlet pressure of the fuel transfer pump.

  1. The governor and the fuel injection linkage is damaged or the governor and the fuel injection linkage is incorrectly assembled in the timing gear case.

    Adjust the linkage. Replace suspect parts.

  1. The valve lash is not correct.

    Adjust the valve lash. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Engine Design" topic for the valve lash setting.

  1. The operation of the fuel injection pump is not correct.

    Check the timing of the fuel injection pump. Adjust the timing or replace the fuel injection pump. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Pump" topic for additional information. The fuel injection pump must be repaired or replaced.

    Make sure that the linkage of the fuel rack operates correctly.

    Make sure that the high pressure fuel lines are connected to the fuel injection nozzles in the correct order.

    Make sure that the mounting bolts of the fuel injection pump are tightened to the correct torque. Inspect the fuel lines for leaks or for restrictions. The damaged fuel lines or fittings must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A fuel injection nozzle is not operating correctly.

    Run the engine at the rpm that gives maximum misfiring or rough running. Then, loosen a fuel line nut on the injection line for each cylinder. Loosen one nut at a time. Then, tighten that nut before the next fuel line nut is loosened. If loosening the fuel line nut does not affect the operation of the engine, the fuel injection nozzle is probably suspect. Test the fuel injection nozzle for that cylinder. Replace the suspect fuel injection nozzle.

    Make sure that all of the fuel injection nozzles are the correct type for the engine. Test the pressure setting of the fuel injection nozzles. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Nozzles" topic for additional information.

    Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are properly sealed in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are correctly aligned in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are tightened to the correct torque. Ensure that the gaskets and the seat washers are installed on the fuel injection nozzles correctly. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports are clean and free of debris. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports do not contain extra gaskets.

The engine has excessive vibration.

Probable Cause

  1. The bolts for the pulleys are loose. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Crankshaft Pulley" topic for additional information.

    Tighten the bolts.

  1. A pulley is suspect.

    Inspect the pulleys for wear or for damage. If the pulley is worn or damaged, use new parts for replacement.

  1. The engine mounts are loose, worn, or suspect.

    Tighten all mounting bolts. Inspect the engine mounts for wear or for damage. Use new parts for replacement.

The engine has excessive combustion noise.

Probable Cause

  1. Fuel of low quality is in the fuel system.

    Remove the fuel from the fuel tank. Install a new fuel filter. Put a good grade of clean fuel in the fuel tank.

  1. A fuel injection nozzle is not operating correctly.

    Run the engine at the rpm that gives maximum misfiring or rough running. Then, loosen a fuel line nut on the injection line for each cylinder. Loosen one nut at a time. Then, tighten that nut before the next fuel line nut is loosened. If loosening the fuel line nut does not affect the operation of the engine, the fuel injection nozzle is probably suspect. Test the fuel injection nozzle for that cylinder. Replace the suspect fuel injection nozzle.

    Make sure that all of the fuel injection nozzles are the correct type for the engine. Test the pressure setting of the fuel injection nozzles. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Nozzles" topic for additional information.

    Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are properly sealed in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are correctly aligned in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are tightened to the correct torque. Ensure that the gaskets and the seat washers are installed on the fuel injection nozzles correctly. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports are clean and free of debris. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports do not contain extra gaskets.

  1. The piston height is incorrect.

    Measure the piston height. To obtain the correct piston height, the piston, the piston pin, the bearings, or the connecting rod should be replaced.

The engine has excessive valve compartment noise.

Probable Cause

  1. Valve springs or locks are broken.

    Install new parts. Broken locks can cause the valve to slide into the cylinder. Major damage to the engine can occur.

  1. The bolts and nuts, which hold the rocker arm assembly, are loose.

    Tighten the bolts or nuts. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Rocker Shaft" topic for additional information.

  1. The valve lash exceeds the specification.

    Adjust the valve lash. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Engine Design" topic for the valve lash setting.

Engine oil is in the cooling system.

Probable Cause

  1. The cylinder head gasket is suspect.

    Install a new cylinder head gasket.

Engine knock occurs.

Probable Cause

  1. A main bearing is damaged.

    Inspect the main bearings and the bearing surfaces of the crankshaft. Replace damaged parts.

  1. The crankshaft is damaged.

    Replace the crankshaft. Clean the engine thoroughly.

  1. The piston height is incorrect.

    Check the piston height. Inspect the piston, the connecting rod, and the crankshaft for wear. Check for correct installation.

  1. The projection of the fuel injection nozzle in the precombustion chamber is incorrect.

    Run the engine at the rpm that gives maximum misfiring or rough running. Then, loosen a fuel line nut on the injection line for each cylinder. Loosen one nut at a time. Then, tighten that nut before the next fuel line nut is loosened. If loosening the fuel line nut does not affect the operation of the engine, the fuel injection nozzle is suspect. Test the fuel injection nozzle for that cylinder. Replace the suspect fuel injection nozzle.

    Make sure that all of the fuel injection nozzles are the correct type for the engine. Test the pressure setting of the fuel injection nozzles.

    Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are properly sealed in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are correctly aligned in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel injection line nuts are tightened to the correct torque. Ensure that the gaskets and the seat washers are installed on the fuel injection nozzles correctly. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports are clean and free of debris. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports do not contain extra gaskets.

The rocker arm has insufficient movement and the valve lash exceeds the specification.

Probable Cause

  1. Lubrication of internal engine components is inadequate.

    Check lubrication of the valves. There must be a strong flow of oil at high rpm. There must be a small flow of oil at low rpm. Oil passages in the engine must be clean.

  1. Rocker arm parts are worn.

    If there is too much wear, install new parts or rocker arms. Adjust the valve lash.

  1. The end of the valve stem is worn.

    Install new valves. Adjust the valve lash.

  1. The valve lash exceeds the specification.

    Measure the valve lash. Adjust the valve lash.

  1. The pushrods are worn.

    If there is too much wear, install new pushrods. Adjust the valve lash.

  1. The valve lifters are worn.

    If there is too much wear, install new valve lifters. Adjust the valve lash.

  1. The lobes of the camshaft are worn.

    Measure the valve lash. Check for free movement of the valves. Check for bent valve stems. Check for wear on the valve lifters. Replace suspect parts. Adjust the valve lash.

  1. The bolts and the nuts that hold the rocker arm assembly are loose.

    Tighten the bolts and the nuts.

A cylinder head valve is loose.

Probable Cause

  1. The valve keeper for the valve is broken.

    Replace the valve keeper. Broken keepers can cause the valve to slide into the cylinder. Major engine damage can result.

  1. The valve springs are broken or damaged.

    Install new valve springs.

Oil condenses at the exhaust.

Probable Cause

  1. The valve compartment contains too much oil.

    Look at both ends of the rocker arm shaft. Be sure that a plug is installed in each end.

  1. The valve guides are worn.

    Install new valve guides. Recondition the cylinder head.

  1. The piston rings are worn.

    Replace the piston rings.

The valve lash is less than the required specification.

Probable Cause

  1. The valve seat or the face of the valve is worn.

    Adjust the valve lash. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Engine Design" topic for the valve lash setting.

Engine components have early wear.

Probable Cause

  1. Dirt is in the engine oil.

    Remove the dirty engine oil. Install a new oil filter. Put clean oil in the engine.

  1. Leaks exist in the air inlet system.

    Inspect all gaskets and connections. The components must be repaired or replaced.

  1. Fuel leaks into the engine oil. Fuel leaks will cause high fuel consumption and low engine oil pressure.

    • Fuel leaks into the crankcase from the fuel transfer pump.

    • Fuel leaks past the valve in a fuel injection nozzle.

    • The pressure setting of the fuel injection nozzles is too high.

    • The drive is broken on the fuel injection pump.

    Adjust the component. Replace a damaged component.

Coolant is in the engine oil.

Probable Cause

  1. The cylinder head gasket is damaged.

    Install a new cylinder head gasket.

  1. The cylinder head is cracked or damaged.

    Install a new cylinder head.

  1. The cylinder block is cracked or damaged.

    Install a new cylinder block.

The engine exhaust has too much black smoke or too much gray smoke.

Probable Cause

  1. The cylinders have low compression.

    Starting the engine may be difficult in warm weather. The engine may not start in cold weather. Low compression is most frequently caused by the following conditions:

    • Dirty air filter

    • Cylinder walls are worn or damaged.

    • Piston rings are worn or broken.

    • The piston height is incorrect.

    • The piston is damaged.

    • The fuel injection nozzles are not seated correctly.

    • The valve lash requires adjustment.

    • The fuel injection pump timing is incorrect.

    • The engine timing is incorrect.

    • When an inlet valve or an exhaust valve is fully seated, gases leak past the valve head.

  1. The operation of the fuel injection pump is not correct.

    Check the timing of the fuel injection pump. Adjust the timing or replace the fuel injection pump. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Pump" topic for additional information. The fuel injection pump must be repaired or replaced.

    Make sure that the linkage of the fuel rack operates correctly.

    Make sure that the high pressure fuel lines are connected to the fuel injection nozzles in the correct order.

    Make sure that the mounting bolts of the fuel injection pump are tightened to the correct torque. Inspect the fuel lines for leaks or for restrictions. The damaged fuel lines or fittings must be repaired or replaced.

  1. A fuel injection nozzle is not operating correctly.

    Run the engine at the rpm that gives maximum misfiring or rough running. Then, loosen a fuel line nut on the injection line for each cylinder. Loosen one nut at a time. Then, tighten that nut before the next fuel line nut is loosened. If loosening the fuel line nut does not affect the operation of the engine, the fuel injection nozzle is probably suspect. Test the fuel injection nozzle for that cylinder. Replace the suspect fuel injection nozzle.

    Make sure that all of the fuel injection nozzles are the correct type for the engine. Test the pressure setting of the fuel injection nozzles. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Nozzles" topic for additional information.

    Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are properly sealed in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are correctly aligned in the threaded ports. Make sure that the fuel injection nozzles are tightened to the correct torque. Ensure that the gaskets and the seat washers are installed on the fuel injection nozzles correctly. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports are clean and free of debris. Make sure that the bottom of the threaded ports do not contain extra gaskets.

  1. The inlet air is restricted.

    Check the air cleaner for restrictions. The air cleaner must be cleaned or replaced.

The engine exhaust has too much white smoke or too much blue smoke.

Probable Cause

  1. The engine contains too much engine oil.

    Drain the excess oil from the engine oil pan.

  1. The engine misfires or the engine runs rough.

    Refer to Problem 3.

  1. The fuel injection timing is not correct.

    Adjust the timing of the fuel injection pump. Refer to the Specifications Module or the Systems Operations, Testing and Adjusting Module, "Fuel Injection Pump" topic for additional information.

  1. The valve guides are worn.

    Replace the valve guides. Check the flatness of the cylinder head. Recondition the cylinder head if the flatness is out of tolerance.

  1. The piston rings are worn. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Pistons and Rings" topic for additional information.

    Replace the piston rings.

  1. The engine consistently runs below the normal operating temperature. The water temperature regulator is suspect.

    Replace the water temperature regulator.

  1. The breather hose or the vent hole in the breather assembly is obstructed.

    Clean the vent hole, the breather assembly, and the breather hose.

The engine has low oil pressure.

Probable Cause

  1. The engine oil level is low.

    Add engine oil to the correct level.

  1. The engine oil filter is restricted.

    Install a new engine oil filter. Replace the oil in the engine with clean engine oil. Check the operation of the engine oil bypass valve for the engine oil filter.

  1. The engine oil cooler (if equipped) is restricted.

    Remove the engine oil cooler. Inspect the engine oil cooler for restrictions.

  1. Fuel leaks into the lubrication oil. Fuel leaks will cause high fuel consumption and low engine oil pressure.

    • Fuel leaks into the crankcase from the fuel transfer pump.

    • Fuel leaks past the valve in a fuel injection nozzle.

    • The pressure setting of the fuel injection nozzles is too high.

    • The drive is broken on the fuel injection pump.

    Adjust the component. Replace a damaged component.

  1. Too much clearance exists between the bore of the rocker arm and the rocker shaft.

    Check for adequate lubrication of the rocker arm assembly. Replace parts which are worn. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Rocker Shaft" topic for additional information.

  1. The suction pipe for the engine oil pump is suspect.

    Replace the suction pipe.

  1. The engine oil bypass valve does not operate correctly.

    Clean the bypass valve. Replace the bypass valve if the spring is broken or the plunger is damaged.

  1. The engine oil pump does not operate correctly.

    Check the distance of the face of the cover of the oil pump above the face of the idler gear. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Engine Oil Pump" topic. Check the wear of the lobe on the oil pump. The components of the idler gear and the oil pump must be repaired or replaced.

  1. Too much clearance exists between the crankshaft and the crankshaft bearings.

    Replace the crankshaft or the crankshaft bearings. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Crankshaft" topic for additional information.

  1. Too much clearance exists between the camshaft and the camshaft bearings.

    Replace the camshaft or the camshaft bearings.

The engine oil pressure is too high.

Probable Cause

  1. The engine oil bypass valve does not open.

    The bypass valve must be cleaned or replaced.

The engine uses too much engine oil.

Probable Cause

  1. The engine contains too much engine oil.

    Drain the excess engine oil from the engine oil pan.

  1. Oil lines have leaks.

    Find the source of the oil leaks. Repair the line or fitting.

  1. The valve guides are worn.

    Replace the valve guides.

  1. The piston rings are worn. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Pistons and Rings" topic for additional information.

    Replace worn parts.

The engine overheats.

Probable Cause

  1. The air flow through the radiator is restricted.

    Clean the exterior of the radiator in order to remove all restrictions.

  1. The coolant level in the engine is low.

    Add coolant into the radiator to the correct level.

  1. The pressure cap is suspect.

    Test the operation of the pressure cap. Replace a faulty pressure cap.

  1. Gases from combustion are in the coolant.

    Find the source of the entry of the gases from combustion into the coolant system. Repair the source of the problem.

  1. The water temperature regulator is suspect.

    Test the water temperature regulator for correct operation. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting Module or the Specifications Module for additional information. Replace a faulty water temperature regulator.

  1. The water pump is suspect.

    The water pump must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The engine is operating with too much load.

    Reduce the load.

  1. The timing of fuel injection pump is incorrect.

    Adjust the timing. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Pump" topic for additional information.

The exhaust temperature is too high.

Probable Cause

  1. A restriction exists in the air inlet or in the exhaust system.

    Remove the restriction.

  1. The timing of the fuel injection pump is incorrect.

    Adjust the timing of the fuel injection pump. Refer to the Specifications Module, "Fuel Injection Pump" topic for additional information.

The starting motor does not turn or the starting motor turns too slowly.

Probable Cause

  1. The battery is discharged.

    Charge the battery. Replace a damaged battery. Clean all cable terminals and battery posts. Apply 1U-8267 Battery Saver and Cleaner on the cable clamps and the battery posts. Tighten the cable clamps on the battery posts.

  1. The terminals or the brushes of the starting motor have a short circuit to ground.

    Find the short circuit. Repair the short circuit.

  1. The ignition switch, the starting motor solenoid, or the start relay is damaged.

    Replace the ignition switch, the starting motor solenoid, or the start relay.

  1. An excessive voltage drop exists in the cables or across the terminals in the circuits for the starting motor. The battery cables are loose at the terminals, corroded, or cracked. The battery terminals are corroded or broken.

    Inspect the battery cables and the battery terminals for loose connections, corrosion or other damage.

The starting motor turns, but the pinion gear does not engage the flywheel ring gear.

Probable Cause

  1. The pinion drive or the overrunning clutch is suspect.

    Replace the pinion drive or the overrunning clutch.

  1. The ring gear of the flywheel is damaged.

    Replace the flywheel.

  1. The shift lever or the linkage is damaged.

    Replace the shift lever or the linkage.

  1. The starting motor solenoid is damaged.

    Replace the starting motor solenoid.

  1. The armature or idler gear of the starting motor is damaged.

    Replace the starting motor.

The engine does not crank or the engine rotates slowly when the keyswitch is in the start position.

Probable Cause

  1. The battery has a low charge.

    Charge the battery. Replace a faulty battery. Clean all cable terminals and battery posts. Apply the 1U-8267 Battery Saver and Cleaner on the cable clamps and to battery posts. Tighten the cable clamps on the battery posts.

  1. The start relay is suspect.

    Replace the start relay.

  1. An excessive voltage drop exists in the cables or across the terminals in the circuits for the starting motor. The battery cables are loose at the battery terminals, corroded, or cracked. The battery terminals are corroded or broken.

    Inspect the battery cables and battery terminals for loose connections, corrosion or other damage. Replace damaged parts.

    Refer to "The Starting Motor does not turn or the Starting motor turns too slowly.".

  1. The overrunning clutch for the pinion drive slips.

    Replace the overrunning clutch.

The starting motor continues to run after the ignition switch is released.

Probable Cause

  1. The ignition switch, the start relay, or the starting motor solenoid is suspect.

    Replace the ignition switch, the start relay, or the starting motor solenoid.

The pinion gear does not disengage after the engine starts to run.

Probable Cause

  1. The return spring of the pinion solenoid is damaged.

    Replace the return spring of the pinion solenoid.

  1. The shift lever or the linkage is damaged.

    Replace the shift lever or the linkage.

  1. The ignition switch or the start relay is suspect.

    Replace the ignition switch or the start relay.

The alternator does not charge the battery or the alternator charge rate is slow or irregular.

Probable Cause

  1. The drive belt for the alternator is loose.

    Inspect the drive belt for wear and for damage. The drive belt must be adjusted or replaced.

  1. The drive pulley for the alternator is loose or worn.

    Inspect the pulley for wear or for damage. Tighten the nuts of the pulley to the correct torque. Replace a damaged pulley.

  1. The electrical cables and connections in the charging and starting circuits are loose or damaged.

  1. Inspect all cables and connections. All connections must be clean and tight. Apply the 1U-8267 Battery Saver and Cleaner on the cable terminals and the connections. Replace suspect parts.

  1. The regulator or the field winding of the rotor in the alternator are suspect.

    The alternator must be repaired or replaced.

  1. The brushes of the alternator are worn or dirty.

    The brushes must be cleaned or replaced.

  1. The rectifier in the alternator is suspect.

    Replace the rectifier or the alternator.

The alternator charges the battery to a voltage that is too high.

Probable Cause

  1. The regulator is suspect.

    Replace the alternator.

The alternator is noisy.

Probable Cause

  1. The drive belt for the alternator is worn or damaged.

    Replace the drive belt for the alternator.

  1. The drive pulley for the alternator is loose or worn.

    Inspect the pulley for wear and for damage. Tighten the nuts of the pulley to the correct torque. Replace a damaged pulley.

  1. The drive belt and the drive pulley are not in alignment.

    Adjust the alignment.

  1. The bearings of the alternator are worn or damaged.

    Replace the alternator.

Information System:

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