C7 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines Cooling System - Test Caterpillar


Cooling System - Test
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1.1. Test Tools For Cooling System
2.1. Making the Correct Antifreeze Mixtures
3.1. Checking the Filler Cap
4.1. Testing The Radiator And Cooling System For Leaks
5.1. Test For The Water Temperature Regulator in the Engine

This engine has a pressurized cooling system. A pressurized cooling system has two advantages. The cooling system can be operated in a safe manner at a temperature higher than the normal boiling point (steam) of water.

This type of system prevents cavitation in the water pump. Cavitation is the forming of low pressure bubbles in liquids that are caused by mechanical forces. The formation of an air pocket or a steam pocket in this type of cooling system is difficult.



Illustration 1g00921815
Boiling point of water

Remember that temperature and pressure work together. When a diagnosis is made of a cooling system problem, temperature and pressure must be checked. Cooling system pressure will have an effect on the cooling system temperature. For an example, refer to Illustration 1. This will show the effect of pressure on the boiling point (steam) of water. This will also show the effect of height above sea level.

------ WARNING! ------

Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam and alkali.

At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot and under pressure. The radiator and all lines to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.

Remove filler cap slowly to relieve pressure only when engine is stopped and radiator cap is cool enough to touch with your bare hand.

Cooling System Conditioner contains alkali. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.


The coolant level must be to the correct level in order to check the coolant system. The engine must be cold and the engine must not be running.

After the engine is cool, loosen the pressure cap in order to relieve the pressure out of the cooling system. Then remove the pressure cap.

The level of the coolant should not be more than 13 mm (0.5 inch) from the bottom of the filler pipe. If the cooling system is equipped with a sight glass, the coolant should be to the proper level in the sight glass.

Test Tools For Cooling System

Table 1
Tools Needed 
Part Number  Part Name  Quantity 
4C-6500  Digital Thermometer 
285-0910  Multi-Tool Gp 
285-0900  Blowby Tool Gp 
NETG5044  Software license 
9S-8140  Pressurizing Pump 
9U-7400
or
1U-6602 
Multitach Tool Gp
or
Photo-Tachometer 
245-5829  Coolant/Battery Tester Gp 

------ WARNING! ------

Making contact with a running engine can cause burns from hot parts and can cause injury from rotating parts.

When working on an engine that is running, avoid contact with hot parts and rotating parts.




Illustration 2g00876179
4C-6500 Digital Thermometer

The 4C-6500 Digital Thermometer is used in the diagnosis of overheating conditions and in the diagnosis of overcooling conditions. This group can be used to check temperatures in several different parts of the cooling system. Refer to the tool's Operating Manual for the testing procedure.



Illustration 3g01311364
285-0910 Multi-Tool Gp

The 285-0910 Multi-Tool Gp is used to check the air flow through the radiator core.



Illustration 4g00286276
9U-7400 Multitach Tool Group

The 9U-7400 Multitach Tool Group is used to check the fan speed. Refer to Operating Manual, NEHS0605, "9U7400 MULTITACH II GP. & 9U7402 MULTITACH II PHOTO GP" for the testing procedure.

The 9U-7400 Multitach Tool Group can measure engine rpm from a magnetic pickup. This magnetic pickup is located in the flywheel housing. The magnetic pickup also uses the ability to measure engine rpm from visual engine parts that are rotating.



Illustration 5g00296064
1U-6602 Photo-Tachometer

The 1U-6602 Photo-Tachometer is a photo-tachometer that is held by hand for general use. The 1U-6602 Photo-Tachometer is a phototach, so this tachometer only registers basic input frequency on any visible, rotating part. The basic input frequency equals one revolution per a piece of reflective tape. The 1U-6602 Photo-Tachometer does not replace the 9U-7400 Multitach Tool Group.



Illustration 6g00286369
9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump

The 9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump is used to test the filler caps. This pressurizing pump is also used to pressure test the cooling system for leaks.



Illustration 7g00439083
245-5829 Coolant/Battery Tester

Check the coolant frequently in cold weather for the proper glycol concentration. Use the 245-5829 Coolant/Battery Tester in order to ensure adequate freeze protection. The testers give immediate, accurate readings. The tester can be used for antifreeze or coolants that contain ethylene or propylene glycol.

Making the Correct Antifreeze Mixtures

Adding pure antifreeze as a makeup solution for the cooling system top-off is an unacceptable practice. Adding pure antifreeze increases the concentration of antifreeze in the cooling system. This increases the concentration of the dissolved solids and the undissolved chemical inhibitors in the cooling system. Add the antifreeze and water mixture to the same freeze protection as your cooling system. The following chart assists in determining the concentration of antifreeze to use. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU6250, "Cooling System Specifications".

Table 2
Antifreeze Concentrations 
Temperature  Concentration 
Protection to −15 °C (5 °F)  30% antifreeze and 70% water 
Protection to −23 °C (−10 °F)  40% antifreeze and 60% water 
Protection to −37 °C (−34 °F)  50% antifreeze and 50% water 
Protection to −51 °C (−60 °F)  60% antifreeze and 40% water 

Checking the Filler Cap

Table 3
Tools Needed 
Part Number  Part Name  Quantity 
9S-8140  Pressurizing Pump 

One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling system can be a damaged seal on the radiator filler cap.



Illustration 8g01096114
Typical schematic of filler cap
(1) Sealing surface of both filler cap and radiator

------ WARNING! ------

Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam and alkali.

At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot and under pressure. The radiator and all lines to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.

Remove filler cap slowly to relieve pressure only when engine is stopped and radiator cap is cool enough to touch with your bare hand.

Cooling System Conditioner contains alkali. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.


To check for the amount of pressure that opens the filler cap, use the following procedure:

  1. After the engine cools, carefully loosen the filler cap. Slowly release the pressure from the cooling system. Then, remove the filler cap.

    Carefully inspect the filler cap. Look for any damage to the seals and to the sealing surface. Inspect the following components for any foreign substances:

    • Filler cap

    • Seal

    • Surface for seal

    Remove any deposits that are found on these items, and remove any material that is found on these items.

  2. Install the filler cap on the 9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump.

  3. Look at the gauge for the exact pressure that opens the filler cap.

  4. Compare the gauge's reading with the opening pressure that is listed on the filler cap.

  5. If the filler cap is damaged, replace the filler cap.

Testing The Radiator And Cooling System For Leaks

Table 4
Tools Needed 
Part Number  Part Name  Quantity 
9S-8140  Pressurizing Pump 

Use the following procedure in order to check the cooling system for leaks:

    ------ WARNING! ------

    Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam and alkali.

    At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot and under pressure. The radiator and all lines to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.

    Remove filler cap slowly to relieve pressure only when engine is stopped and radiator cap is cool enough to touch with your bare hand.

    Cooling System Conditioner contains alkali. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.


  1. After the engine is cool, loosen the filler cap slowly and allow pressure out of the cooling system. Then remove the filler cap from the radiator.

  2. Ensure that the coolant level is above the top of the radiator core.

  3. Install the 9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump onto the radiator.

  4. Take the pressure reading on the gauge to 20 kPa (3 psi) more than the pressure on the filler cap.

  5. Check the radiator for leakage on the outside.

  6. Check all connection points for leakage, and check the hoses for leakage.

The cooling system does not have leakage only if the following conditions exist:.

  • You do not observe any outside leakage.

  • The reading remains steady after five minutes.

The inside of the cooling system has leakage only if the following conditions exist:

  • The reading on the gauge goes down.

  • You do not observe any outside leakage.

Make any repairs, as required.

Test For The Water Temperature Regulator in the Engine

Table 5
Tools Needed 
Part Number  Part Name  Quantity 
4C-6500
or
2F-7112 
Digital Thermometer
or
Thermometer 

------ WARNING! ------

Personal injury can result from escaping fluid under pressure.

If a pressure indication is shown on the indicator, push the release valve in order to relieve pressure before removing any hose from the radiator.


------ WARNING! ------

Making contact with a running engine can cause burns from hot parts and can cause injury from rotating parts.

When working on an engine that is running, avoid contact with hot parts and rotating parts.


Check the accuracy of the water temperature indicator or water temperature sensor if you find either of the following conditions:

  • The engine runs at a temperature that is too hot, but a normal temperature is indicated. A loss of coolant is found.

  • The engine runs at a normal temperature, but a hot temperature is indicated. No loss of coolant is found.

An electronic service tool can also be used to read the coolant temperature of the engine.



Illustration 9g01134746
Test location
(1) Adapter

Remove adapter (1). Install one of the following thermometers in the open port:

  • The 4C-6500 Digital Thermometer

  • The 2F-7112 Thermometer

A temperature indicator of known accuracy can also be used to make this check.

Start the engine. Run the engine until the temperature reaches the desired range according to the test thermometer. If necessary, place a cover over part of the radiator in order to cause a restriction of the air flow. The reading on the water temperature indicator should agree with the test thermometer within the tolerance range of the water temperature indicator.

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