Hot engine components can cause injury from burns. Before performing maintenance on the engine, allow the engine and the components to cool.
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened component life.
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and mandates.
Before you begin inspection of the turbocharger, be sure that the inlet air restriction is within the specifications for your engine. Be sure that the exhaust system restriction is within the specifications for your engine. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, "Air Inlet and Exhaust System - Inspect".
The condition of the turbocharger will have definite effects on engine performance. Use the following inspections and procedures to determine the condition of the turbocharger.
- Inspection of the compressor and the compressor housing
- Inspection of the turbine wheel and the turbine housing
- Inspection of the wastegate
- Inspect the compressor wheel for damage from a foreign object. If there is damage, determine the source of the foreign object. Replace the turbocharger. If there is no damage, go to step 2.
- Turn the rotating assembly by hand. While you turn the assembly, push the assembly sideways. The assembly should turn freely. The compressor wheel should not rub the compressor housing. The turbocharger must be replaced if the compressor wheel rubs the compressor wheel housing. If there is no rubbing or scraping, go to Step 3.
- Inspect the compressor and the compressor wheel housing for oil leakage. An oil leak from the compressor may deposit oil in the aftercooler. If oil is found in the aftercooler, then drain and clean the aftercooler.
- Check the oil level in the crankcase. If the oil level is too high, adjust the oil level.
- Inspect the engine crankcase breather. Clean the engine crankcase breather or replace the engine crankcase breather if the engine crankcase breather is plugged.
- Remove the pipe for the oil drain. Inspect the drain opening. Inspect the oil drain line. Inspect the area between the bearings of the rotating assembly shaft. Look for oil sludge. Inspect the oil drain hole for oil sludge. Inspect the oil drain line for oil sludge in the drain line. If necessary, clean the oil drain line.
- If steps 3.a through 3.c did not reveal the source of the oil leakage, the turbocharger has internal damage. Replace the turbocharger.
Typical example of a turbocharger
(1) Turbine housing
(2) Compressor housing
Remove the air piping from the turbine housing.
- Inspect the turbine for damage by a foreign object. If there is damage, determine the source of the foreign object. Replace turbocharger (2). If there is no damage, go to step 2.
- Inspect the turbine wheel for the carbon and other foreign material. Inspect turbine housing (1) for carbon and foreign material. Replace the turbocharger, if necessary. If there is no buildup of carbon or foreign material, go to Step 3.
- Turn the rotating assembly by hand. While you turn the assembly, push the assembly sideways. The assembly should turn freely. The turbine wheel should not rub turbine wheel housing (1). Replace turbocharger (2) if turbine wheel rubs turbine housing (1). If there is no rubbing or scraping, go to step 4.
- Inspect the turbine and turbine housing (1) for oil leakage. Inspect the turbine and turbine housing (1) for oil coking. Some oil coking may be cleaned. Heavy oil coking may require replacement of the turbocharger. If the oil is coming from the turbocharger center housing go to step 4.a. Otherwise go to “Inspection of the Wastegate”.
- Remove the pipe for the oil drain. Inspect the drain opening. Inspect the area between the bearings of the rotating assembly shaft. Look for oil sludge. Inspect the oil drain hole for oil sludge. Inspect the oil drain line for oil sludge. If necessary, clean the drain line.
- If crankcase pressure is high, or if the oil drain is restricted, pressure in the center housing may be greater than the pressure of turbine housing (1). Oil flow may be forced in the wrong direction and the oil may not drain. Check the crankcase pressure and correct any problems.
- If the oil drain line is damaged, replace the oil drain line.
- Check the routing of the oil drain line. Eliminate any sharp restrictive bends. Make sure that the oil drain line is not too close to the engine exhaust manifold.
- If steps 4.a through 4.d did not reveal the source of the oil leakage, turbocharger (3) has internal damage. Replace turbocharger (3).
The wastegate controls the amount of exhaust gas that is allowed to bypass the turbine side of the turbocharger. This valve then controls the rpm of the turbocharger.
When the engine operates in conditions of low boost (lug), a spring presses against a diaphragm in the canister. The actuating rod will move and the wastegate actuator will close. The turbocharger can then operate at maximum performance.
When the boost pressure increases against the diaphragm in the canister, the wastegate will open. The rpm of the turbocharger becomes limited. The rpm limitation occurs because a portion of the exhaust gases bypass the turbine wheel of the turbocharger.
The following levels of boost pressure indicate a problem with the wastegate:
- Too high at full load conditions
- Too low at all lug conditions
The boost pressure controls the maximum rpm of the turbocharger, because the boost pressure controls the position of the wastegate. The following factors also affect the maximum rpm of the turbocharger:
- The engine rating
- The horsepower demand on the engine
- The high idle rpm
- Inlet air restriction
- Exhaust system restriction
Note: The turbocharger is a nonserviceable item. The pressure for the wastegate can be checked, but not adjusted.
- Disconnect the pipe for the boost sensor (3) at the wastegate actuator (2). Connect an air supply to the wastegate actuator that can be adjusted accurately.
- Install Tooling (A) to the turbocharger so that the end of the actuator rod (1) is in contact with Tooling (A). This will measure axial movement of the actuator rod (1).
- Slowly apply air pressure to the wastegate so that the actuator rod (1) moves
1.0 mm (0.039 inch). Refer to Specifications, "Turbocharger" for the correct pressure for the wastegate. Ensure that the dial indicator returns to zero when the air pressure is released. Repeat the test several times. This will ensure that an accurate reading is obtained.
- If the operation of the wastegate is not correct, the turbocharger will need to be replaced.
- Repeat steps 2 to 3 in order to repeat the pressure test.
- If the air pressure is correct, remove the air supply. Remove Tooling (A). Install the pipe for the boost sensor (3).