C-10, C-12, C-15 and C-16 Industrial Engines Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Calibrate Caterpillar


Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Calibrate
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System Operation Description:

Use this procedure if the diagnostic code in Table 1 is active.

Table 1
Diagnostic Codes Table    
Description     Conditions which Generate this Code     System Response    
22-13 "Engine Timing Calibration Not Performed"     A timing calibration is required for a new engine. A timing calibration is also required after a repair to the front gear train, the camshaft, or the crankshaft has been completed. The code may also become active after replacing an Electronic Control Module (ECM) that fails to communicate.     The code is logged.    
261-13 Engine Timing Calibration calibration required    
261-11 Engine Timing Offset fault     The wiring to the sensors may have the wrong polarity. There may be a mechanical problem with the front gear train.     The code is logged.    

The ECM has the ability to compensate for mechanical differences between the Top Center (TC) of the flywheel and the TC of the timing gear on the camshaft.

An "Engine Timing Calibration Not Performed" code is activated if a timing calibration is required.

TC of the Flywheel - The ECM determines the TC of the flywheel via a signal from a magnetic transducer. The transducer is installed into the side of the engine block. The transducer creates a signal as a notch on a crankshaft counterweight rotates past the transducer.

TC of the Timing Gear - The ECM determines the TC of the timing gear by signals from the engine speed/timing sensors.

Any offset between the TC of the flywheel and the TC of the timing gear is stored into the memory of the ECM.

Note: A timing calibration will not increase the available engine power.

Table 2 lists the special tools that are required in order to perform this procedure.

Table 2
Required Special Tools    
Part Number     Description    
7X-1171     Transducer Adapter    
6V-2197     Transducer    
7X-1695     Cable As    
170-3519     Harness  (1)    
( 1 ) This item is not required if the engine harness has a connector for timing calibration.

Test Step 1. Install the Transducer Adapter

  1. Remove the electrical power from the ECM.

  1. Use the appropriate engine turning tool to put either the No. 1 piston or the No. 6 piston at top center. Refer to the Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting.

  1. Refer to Table 3. After the top center position has been located, rotate the crankshaft for the number of degrees that is applicable to your engine model. Be sure to rotate the crankshaft in the direction of rotation that is specified in the Table.

    Table 3
    Crankshaft Rotation    
    Engine Model     Number of Degrees     Direction of Rotation    
    C7     100     Normal Rotation    
    C-9     85     Normal Rotation    
    C-10     60     Opposite Normal Rotation    
    C11     75     Normal Rotation    
    C-12     60     Opposite Normal Rotation    
    C13     75     Normal Rotation    
    C-15     60     Opposite Normal Rotation    
    C15     60     Opposite Normal Rotation    
    C-16     60     Opposite Normal Rotation    
    C18     30     Opposite Normal Rotation    

  1. Refer to Table 4. Locate the engine's timing calibration port.

    Note: In certain applications, the engine uses the port as a return for the crankcase breather fumes. Detach the hose fitting in order to install the timing probe.

    Table 4
    Location of the Timing Calibration Port    
    Engine Model     Crankshaft Counterweight     Engine Location    
    C7     3     Left Side    
    C-9     3     Left Side    
    C-10     8     Right Side    
    C11     8     Left Side    
    C-12     8     Right Side    
    C13     8     Left Side    
    C-15     2     Left Side    
    C15     2     Left Side    
    C-16     2     Left Side    
    C18     2     Left Side    

  1. Remove the plug from the timing calibration port.

  1. Thread the transducer adapter into the port.

Results:

    Continue to the next test step.

Test Step 2. Install the Transducer


    NOTICE

    If the crankshaft is not in the correct position when the transducer is installed, the transducer will be damaged when the engine is started.


  1. Apply clean engine oil to a 2D-6392 O-Ring Seal . Install the O-ring seal on the end of the 6V-2197 Transducer .

  1. Push the transducer through the transducer adapter until the transducer contacts the crankshaft counterweight.

  1. Withdraw the transducer 1.0 mm (0.04 inch) and hand tighten the nut on the adapter sleeve in order to secure the transducer. Move the O-ring seal against the adapter.

Results:

    Continue to the next test step.

Test Step 3. Connect the 7X-1695 Cable As

  1. If the engine harness is equipped with a connector for timing calibration, connect the 7X-1695 Cable As to the connector for timing calibration and to the transducer.



    Illustration 1g01963414

    Connecting the 7X-1695 Cable As to an ADEM III ECM




    Illustration 2g01345359

    Connecting the 7X-1695 Cable As to an ADEM IV ECM

  1. If the engine harness is not equipped with a connector for timing calibration, perform the following procedure:

    Note: Refer to Illustration 1 or Illustration 2. The 170-3519 Harness can be connected to the P1 connector or to the P2 connector. Select the connector with the easiest access.

    1. Table 5
      Locations for Connection of the 170-3519 Harness    
      Wire Color     Locations on the 70−pin P2 Connector     Locations on the 120−pin P2 Connector     Locations on the P1 Connector    
      White     22     26     24    
      Yellow     23     36     25    

    1. Refer to Table 5. Remove the sealing plugs from the appropriate terminals. Do not discard the sealing plugs. The sealing plugs may be reinstalled when the timing calibration is complete.

    1. Disregard the pin-outs on the label of the harness. Install the white wire of the 170-3519 Harness into the appropriate location.

    1. Install the yellow wire of the 170-3519 Harness into the appropriate location.

      Note: Ensure that each wire is installed into the correct location. The timing calibration will not be successful if the wires are installed incorrectly.

    1. Connect the 7X-1695 Cable As to the connector for timing calibration and to the transducer.

Results:

    Continue to the next test step.

Test Step 4. Start the Engine and Check for Diagnostic Codes

  1. Connect AVSpare Electronic Technician (ET) to the service tool connector. Refer to Troubleshooting, "Electronic Service Tools".

  1. Start the engine and run the engine until the engine is at the normal operating temperature.

  1. Check for active diagnostic codes. Wait at least 30 seconds in order for the codes to become active.

    The engine must not have any active diagnostic codes during the timing calibration except for a 261-13 Engine Timing Calibration required.

Expected Result:

There are no active diagnostic codes or there is only a code for timing calibration that is active at this time.

Results:

  • OK - There are no active diagnostic codes or there is only a code that is active for timing calibration at this time. Proceed to Test Step 5.

  • Not OK - There is at least one active code that is not a code for timing calibration.

    Repair: Troubleshoot and repair any active diagnostic codes before you continue with this procedure.

    STOP

Test Step 5. Calibrate the Engine Speed/Timing Sensor

  1. Set the engine speed to 1100 ± 50 rpm. The engine speed must be steady within this rpm range in order for the calibration to be successful.

  1. After the engine has warmed up, access the "Timing Calibration" screen on the Cat ET. Access the following display screens in order:

    • Service

    • Calibrations

    • Timing Calibration

  1. To calibrate the timing, select "Continue" on Cat ET. Wait until Cat ET indicates that the timing is calibrated.

Expected Result:

Cat ET indicates that the timing is calibrated.

Results:

  • OK - Cat ET indicates that the timing is calibrated.

    Repair: Perform the following procedure:

    1. Set the engine speed to low idle.

      Note: Disconnect the 7X-1695 Cable As before you exit the "Timing Calibration" screen. Otherwise, diagnostic codes may be activated.

    1. Disconnect the 7X-1695 Cable As .

    1. Exit the "Timing Calibration" screen on Cat ET.

    1. Remove the electrical power from the ECM.

    1. Remove the transducer and remove the adapter.

    1. Install the plug into the timing calibration port.

    1. If you installed a 170-3519 Harness , you may remove the harness or you may permanently install the harness for future use. If you remove the harness, install the sealing plugs into the unused cavities of the ECM connector. Otherwise, moisture and debris will enter the connector.

      If you choose to permanently install the harness, fasten the harness to the existing engine wiring harness with cable ties. Also, install a 3E-3364 Receptacle and two 8T-8737 Seal Plugs on the 2-pin connector in order to prevent moisture and debris from entering the connector.

    1. Return the engine to service.

    STOP

  • Not OK - The timing calibration was unsuccessful.

    Repair: The following conditions can cause the timing calibration to fail:

    • If the crankshaft and camshaft gears have been reassembled incorrectly, the timing will not calibrate.

    • Verify that the timing calibration probe is installed correctly.

    • Verify that the engine speed is correct and that the engine speed is stable. If the engine speed is unstable, refer to troubleshooting without a diagnostic code Troubleshooting, "Engine Misfires, Runs Rough or Is Unstable".

    • There may be a problem with the transducer or with the cables. Obtain a new transducer and/or a new cable and repeat the timing calibration.

    STOP

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