C32 Marine Engines Engine Speed/Timing Sensor Circuit - Test Caterpillar


Engine Speed/Timing Sensor Circuit - Test
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System Operation Description:

Use this procedure to troubleshoot any suspect problems with the following sensors:

  • Primary engine speed/timing sensor

  • Secondary engine speed/timing sensor

This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:

  • 190-08 Engine Speed abnormal

  • 342-08 Secondary Engine Speed signal abnormal

The engine uses two engine speed/timing sensors. The primary engine speed/timing sensor detects the reference for engine speed and timing from a unique pattern on the crankshaft gear. The secondary engine speed/timing sensor detects the reference for engine speed and timing from a unique pattern on the camshaft gear. The ECM counts the time between pulses that is created by the sensor as the gear rotates in order to determine rpm.

Under normal operation, the secondary engine speed/timing sensor is used to determine timing for starting purposes. The secondary engine speed/timing sensor is used to determine when the piston in the No. 1 cylinder is at the top of the compression stroke. When the timing has been established, the primary engine speed/timing sensor is then used to determine engine speed.

When the timing has been established, the ECM triggers each injector in the correct firing order at the correct time. The actual timing and duration of each injection is based on engine rpm and on load.

If the engine is running and the signal from one sensor is lost, no noticeable change in engine performance will be noticed. If the engine is running and the signals from both sensors are lost, fuel injection will be terminated and the engine will be shut down by the ECM.

The engine will start when only one sensor signal is present. The engine will not start if the signals from both sensors are lost.

Both sensors are magnetic sensors. The two sensors are not interchangeable. If a sensor is replaced, a timing calibration is not necessary.

If a replacement of the ECM is required, the ECM parameters and the timing calibration can be transferred from the suspect ECM to the replacement ECM. Timing calibration will not be necessary. This feature requires the AVSpare Electronic Technician (ET) and this feature is only possible if the existing ECM can communicate with Cat ET. Use the "Copy Configuration - ECM Replacement" feature on Cat ET.

Complete all of the following tasks when you install a speed/timing sensor:

  • Ensure that an O-ring is installed on the sensor. If the O-ring is damaged or missing, replace the O-ring.

  • Lubricate the O-ring with oil.

  • Ensure that the sensor is fully seated into the engine before tightening the bracket bolt.

  • Ensure that the electrical connector is latched.

  • Ensure that the harness is properly secured, and ensure that each tie-wrap is placed in the correct location.




Illustration 1g01129099

Schematic for the engine speed/timing sensors

Test Step 1. Check for Diagnostic Codes

  1. Connect Cat ET to the service tool connector. Refer to Troubleshooting, "Electronic Service Tools".

  1. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

  1. Start the engine and run the engine until the engine is at the normal operating temperature.

    Note: If the engine will not start, monitor the engine rpm on Cat ET while the engine is being cranked. Cat ET may need to be powered from another battery while the engine is being cranked.

  1. Look for these codes on Cat ET:

    • 190-08

    • 342-08

Expected Result:

One or both of the diagnostic codes that are listed above are logged or active.

Note: If the engine will not start and Cat ET displayed 0 rpm during cranking, select "No Engine rpm".

Results:

  • No Engine rpm - Engine rpm is not indicated on Cat ET. Proceed to Test Step 2.

  • 190-08 or 342-08 code - There is an active diagnostic code or a logged diagnostic code for an engine speed/timing sensor. Proceed to Test Step 4.

  • No codes - Neither code is active or logged.

    Repair: Refer to the appropriate symptoms in Troubleshooting, "Troubleshooting Without a Diagnostic Code".

    STOP

Test Step 2. Check the Installation of the Sensor Assembly

  1. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.



    Illustration 2g01133578

    Typical engine speed/timing sensor

    (1) Engine

    (2) Flange

  1. Visually inspect each sensor assembly without removing the sensor assembly from the engine. Flange (2) must be flush against engine (1) in order to ensure proper operation.

    Note: The flange cannot be replaced separately.

  1. Remove the suspect sensor assembly from the engine.



    Illustration 3g01134492

    Typical engine speed/timing sensor

    (3) O-ring

  1. Ensure that one O-ring (3) is installed on the sensor. Check the O-ring for damage. Replace the O-ring, if necessary.

Results:

  • OK - The sensor's components are OK.

    Repair: Perform the following procedure in order to properly install the sensor assembly:

    1. Lubricate the O-ring with engine oil.

    1. Fully seat the sensor assembly in the engine.

      Note: If the sensor assembly will not fully seat into the engine, replace the sensor assembly.

    1. Tighten the bracket bolt.

    1. Connect the sensor's electrical connectors. Verify that the connectors are latched on both sides.

    1. Ensure that the harness is properly secured, and that the tie-wraps are placed in the correct location.

    Proceed to Test Step 3.

  • Not OK - At least one of the sensor assembly's components is not OK.

    Repair: Obtain a new sensor assembly. Perform the following procedure in order to properly install the sensor assembly:

    1. Lubricate each O-ring with engine oil.

    1. Fully seat the sensor assembly in the engine.

      Note: If the sensor assembly will not fully seat into the engine, replace the sensor assembly.

    1. Tighten the bracket bolt.

    1. Connect the sensor's electrical connectors. Verify that the connector is latched.

    1. Ensure that the harness is properly secured, and that the tie-wraps are placed in the correct location.
    Verify that the problem is resolved.

    STOP

Test Step 3. Inspect the Electrical Connectors and the Wiring




    Illustration 4g01134498

    Engine components for the engine speed/timing sensors

    (1) J2/P2 ECM connector

    (2) J402/P402 connectors for the secondary engine speed/timing sensor

    (3) J401/P401 connectors for the primary engine speed/timing sensor

  1. Thoroughly inspect connectors (1), (2), and (3). Refer to Troubleshooting, "Electrical Connectors - Inspect".



    Illustration 5g01130324

    P2 terminals that are associated with the engine speed/timing sensors

    (P2-25) Primary engine speed/timing −

    (P2-35) Primary engine speed/timing +

    (P2-46) Secondary engine speed/timing +

    (P2-47) Secondary engine speed/timing −

    (P2-92) Shield

  1. Perform a 45 N (10 lb) pull test on each of the wires that are associated with the engine speed/timing sensors.

  1. Check the allen head screw on each ECM connector for the proper torque. Refer to Troubleshooting, "Electrical Connectors - Inspect" for the correct torque values.

  1. Check the harness and the wiring for abrasion and for pinch points from each sensor back to the ECM.

Expected Result:

All of the connectors, pins and sockets are completely coupled and/or inserted and the harness and wiring are free of corrosion, of abrasion and of pinch points.

Results:

  • OK - The harness and connectors appear to be OK. Proceed to Test Step 4.

  • Not OK - The connectors and/or wiring are not OK.

    Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connectors. Replace parts, if necessary. Ensure that all of the seals are properly in place and ensure that the connectors are completely coupled. Verify that the repair eliminates the problem.

    STOP

Test Step 4. Measure the Sensor Resistance through the Engine Harness

  1. Disconnect the J2/P2 ECM connectors.

  1. If you are troubleshooting a problem with the primary engine speed/timing sensor, perform the following procedure:

    1. Measure the sensor's resistance between P2-25 (Primary engine speed/timing +) and P2-35 (Primary engine speed/timing -).

    1. Check for an intermittent open circuit or for a short circuit by moving the harness while you take the resistance measurement. Pull the wires that are directly behind the sensor or shake the wires that are directly behind the sensor.

      Resistance ... 75 to 230 Ohms

  1. If you are troubleshooting a problem with the secondary engine speed/timing sensor, perform the following procedure:

    1. Measure the sensor's resistance between P2-47 (Secondary engine speed/timing +) and P2-46 (Secondary engine speed/timing -).

    1. Check for an intermittent open circuit or for a short circuit by moving the harness while you take the resistance measurement. Pull the wires that are directly behind the sensor or shake the wires that are directly behind the sensor.

      Resistance ... 600 to 1800 Ohms

Expected Result:

The resistance measurement is within the specifications.

Results:

  • OK - The resistance measurement is within the specifications. Neither a short circuit nor an open circuit is indicated.

    Repair: Perform the following procedure:

    1. Temporarily install a new ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting, "Replacing the ECM".

    1. Start the engine. Run the engine until the engine is at normal operating temperature.

    1. If the problem is resolved with the test ECM, connect the original ECM and verify that the problem recurs.

    1. If the problem returns with the original ECM, replace the ECM.

      Verify that the problem is resolved.

    STOP

  • Not OK - The readings are not within the specifications. The sensor resistance is not within the acceptable range when the sensor resistance is measured through the engine harness. Proceed to Test Step 5.

Test Step 5. Measure the Resistance of the Sensor

  1. Disconnect the harness connector for the suspect sensor.

  1. Thoroughly inspect the sensor's connectors. Refer to Troubleshooting, "Electrical Connectors - Inspect".

  1. Measure the sensor's resistance between terminals A and B.

Expected Result:

For the primary engine speed/timing sensor, the resistance measurement is between 75 and 230 Ohms. For the secondary engine speed/timing sensor, the resistance measurement is between 600 and 1800 Ohms.

Results:

  • OK - The reading is within the specification. There is a problem with the wiring between the engine speed/timing sensor and the ECM. There may be a problem with a connector.

    Repair: Repair the wiring and/or the connector. Replace parts, if necessary. Verify that the problem is resolved.

    STOP

  • Not OK - The reading is not within the specification. There is an electrical problem with the engine speed/timing sensor.

    Repair: Perform the following procedure in order to check and install the new sensor assembly:

    1. Before you install the new sensor assembly, measure the resistance of the new sensors.

      If the resistance measurements of the new sensors are within the specifications, install the new sensor assembly in the engine according to the following procedure:

      1. Loosen the bolt and remove the bolt that holds the sensor to the engine.

      1. Ensure that an O-ring is installed on the new sensor assembly. Verify that the O-ring is free of damage.

      1. Seat the sensor and tighten the bolt.

        If the sensor will not seat, replace the sensor.

      1. Ensure that the harness is secured in the proper location.

    1. Verify that the repair eliminates the problem.

    STOP

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