G3600 A4 Engines Detonation Occurrence Caterpillar


Detonation Occurrence
`
1.1. Probable Causes
2.1. Recommended Actions

Use this procedure in order to troubleshoot a detonation occurrence. Also, use this procedure if one of the following event codes is active or logged.

Any alarm that is generated by the detonation detection system must be investigated. The cause of the alarm must be identified and corrected.

Table 1
J1939 Code and Description  Comments 
1352-0
Engine Cylinder #1 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1352-15
Engine Cylinder #1 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1353-0
Engine Cylinder #2 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1353-15
Engine Cylinder #2 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1354-0
Engine Cylinder #3 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1354-15
Engine Cylinder #3 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1355-0
Engine Cylinder #4 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1355-15
Engine Cylinder #4 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1356-0
Engine Cylinder #5 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1356-15
Engine Cylinder #5 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1357-0
Engine Cylinder #6 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1357-15
Engine Cylinder #6 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1358-0
Engine Cylinder #7 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1358-15
Engine Cylinder #7 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1359-0
Engine Cylinder #8 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1359-15
Engine Cylinder #8 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1360-0
Engine Cylinder #9 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1360-15
Engine Cylinder #9 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1361-0
Engine Cylinder #10 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1361-15
Engine Cylinder #10 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1362-0
Engine Cylinder #11 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1362-15
Engine Cylinder #11 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1363-0
Engine Cylinder #12 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1363-15
Engine Cylinder #12 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1364-0
Engine Cylinder #13 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1364-15
Engine Cylinder #13 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1365-0
Engine Cylinder #14 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1365-15
Engine Cylinder #14 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1366-0
Engine Cylinder #15 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1366-15
Engine Cylinder #15 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1367-0
Engine Cylinder #16 Knock Level : High - most severe (3) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 
1367-15
Engine Cylinder #16 Knock Level : High - least severe (1) 
The level of detonation has exceeded the trip point.
Maximum retardation of the timing was unable to control the detonation adequately during the number of ignition sparks that are allowed.
The engine performance may be affected by an adjustment of the timing in order to reduce detonation.
The code is logged. 

Probable Causes

  • Codes

  • Air/Fuel ratio

  • Engine overload

  • Cylinder misfire

  • Needle valves

  • Inlet air temperature

  • Detonation sensor

  • Coolant

  • Excessive deposits

  • Valve lash

Recommended Actions

Table 2
Troubleshooting Test Steps  Values  Results 

1. Check for Codes

A. Connect Cat® Electronic Technician (ET) to the service tool connector.

B. Look for active codes that are associated with the system for the event code.
 

Codes
 

Result: An associated code is active.

Repair: Troubleshoot any associated codes before continuing with this test.

Result: A code is active or logged.

Proceed to Test Step 2.
 

2. Check the Air/Fuel Ratio

Note: An air/fuel mixture that is too rich will cause detonation. A change in the fuel energy content will change the air/fuel ratio.

A. Obtain a fuel analysis.

Note: If the quality of the gas is inconsistent, obtain several analyses over a period of time.

B. Enter the data into AVSpare Software, LERW4485, "Gas Engine Rating Pro (GERP)".

C. Verify that the fuel supply pressure is adequate and stable.

D. Verify that the exhaust emissions are correct.
 

Air/Fuel Ratio
 

Result: The air/fuel ratio is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The air/fuel ratio is NOT OK.

Repair: Use Cat ET to program the results for the "Fuel Specific Heat Ratio", "Fuel Quality", and "Gas Specific Gravity" parameters. Refer to Systems Operation, "Electronic Control System Parameters" for additional information.

Program the "Fuel Quality" parameter to the average value of the LHV. Adjust the engine operation according to Testing and Adjusting, "BTU and Precombustion Chamber Adjustments".

If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Test Step 3.
 

3. Check for Engine Overload

Note: When the load that is applied to the engine is too large, the engine will run in the lug condition. When the engine is running in the lug condition, engine rpm does not increase with an increase of fuel.
 

Load
 

Result: The engine is not being overloaded.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The engine is being overloaded.

Repair: Reduce engine load to an acceptable limit.

If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Test Step 4.
 

4. Check for a Cylinder Misfire

Note: Cylinder misfire can lead to detonation for an engine that is heavily loaded.
 

Misfire
 

Result: There is not a cylinder misfire.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: There is a cylinder misfire.

Repair: Troubleshoot the cause of the misfire. Refer to Troubleshooting, "Engine Misfires, Runs Rough, or Is Unstable" for additional information.

If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Test Step 5.
 

5. Check the Needle Valve Adjustments

Note: Misfire can occur in the precombustion chamber if the air/fuel mixture is too lean. If a cylinder is misfiring, the other cylinders can be overloaded. Overloading will cause the other cylinders to detonate.

A. If the needle valves require adjustment, do the following procedure:

- Fully close all of the needle valves.
- Open all of the needle valves 2.5 turns.
- Enter "Engine Prechamber Calibration" mode in Cat ET.
- Record engine average burn time.
- Adjust each needle valve until all cylinders' burn times are within +/- 0.12 milliseconds of the engine average burn time.
- Exit "Engine Prechamber Calibration" mode.

Note: The recommended position of the needle valve is 2.5 turns open.
 

Needle Valves
 

Result: The needle valves are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: The needle valves are NOT OK.

Repair: Adjust the needle valves to the correct setting. Refer to Testing and Adjusting, "BTU and Precombustion Chamber Adjustments" for additional information.

If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Test Step 6.
 

7. Check for High Inlet Air Temperature

A. Check for high inlet air temperature.

B. Check for a restriction to the air flow through the aftercooler.
 

Air Temperature
 

Result: The inlet air temperature is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The inlet air temperature is NOT OK.

Repair: Determine the reason for high inlet air temperatures. Repair or replace damaged components.

If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Test Step 8.
 

8. Inspect the Detonation Sensors

A. Check the detonation sensors torque.

Note: The detonation sensors torque to 15 ± 3 N·m (11 ± 2 lb ft)

Sensor

 

Result: The detonation sensors torque are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

Result: The detonation sensors torque are NOT OK.

Repair: Troubleshoot the circuit for the detonation sensors, if necessary. Refer to Troubleshooting, "Detonation - Test" for additional information.

If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Test Step 9.
 

9. Check for Coolant in the Cylinders

Note: Under some circumstances, detonation can occur if a solution of water and glycol leaks into a precombustion chamber and the coolant is burned. If a water/glycol solution is used, monitor the cylinder exhaust port temperature. If the temperature is higher than the average, inspect the cylinder for evidence of coolant leaks in the precombustion chamber.

Note: Significant leaking of any type of coolant will cause the cylinder to misfire.
 

Coolant
 

Result: Coolant is not in any cylinder.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

Result: Coolant is in a cylinder.

Repair: Investigate the cause of the condition. Make repairs, as needed.

If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Test Step 10.
 

10. Inspect for Excessive Deposits in the Combustion Chamber

A. Overfilling of engine oil can lead to deposits. Check the oil level.

B. Use a borescope to inspect the cylinders. Look for the following conditions:

- Deposits on the valve seats
- Deposits on the valve faces
- Deposits on the cylinder walls that are above the upper limit of the piston stroke
- Signs of internal leaks

Note: Signs of internal leaks include excessive consumption of engine oil, blue smoke, and excessive detonation.
 

Deposits
 

Result: Deposits and/or signs of internal leaks are not found.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

Result: Deposits or signs of internal leaks are found.

Repair: Investigate the cause of the condition. Repair or replace damaged components.

If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Test Step 11.
 

12. Check the Valve Lash

Note: The valve lash can affect the performance of the engine.
 

Valve Lash
 

Result: The valve lash is NOT OK.

Repair: Reset the valve lash. Refer to Testing and Adjusting, "Valve Lash and Valve Bridge Adjustment (Gas Admission Valve Lash)" for additional information.

Verify that the repair eliminated the problem.
 

If the procedure did not correct the issue, contact your Cat dealer Technical Communicator (TC). For further assistance, your TC can confer with the Dealer Solutions Network (DSN).

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