G3600 A4 Engines Detonation - Test Caterpillar


Detonation - Test
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Use this procedure to troubleshoot a detonation occurrence. Also, use this procedure if one of following diagnostic codes is active or easily repeated.

Table 1
J1939 Code and Description  Comments 
1352-3
Engine Cylinder #1 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The Integrated Sensing Module (ISM) detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1352-4
Engine Cylinder #1 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1353-3
Engine Cylinder #2 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1353-4
Engine Cylinder #2 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1354-3
Engine Cylinder #3 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1354-4
Engine Cylinder #3 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1355-3
Engine Cylinder #4 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1355-4
Engine Cylinder #4 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1356-3
Engne Cylinder #5 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1356-4
Engine Cylinder #5 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1357-3
Engine Cylinder #6 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1357-4
Engine Cylinder #6 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1358-3
Engine Cylinder #7 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1358-4
Engine Cylinder #7 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1359-3
Engine Cylinder #8 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1359-4
Engine Cylinder #8 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1360-3
Engine Cylinder #9 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1360-4
Engine Cylinder #9 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1361-3
Engine Cylinder #10 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1361-4
Engine Cylinder #10 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1362-3
Engine Cylinder #11 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1362-4
Engine Cylinder #11 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1363-3
Engine Cylinder #12 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1363-4
Engine Cylinder #12 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1364-3
Engine Cylinder #13 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1364-4
Engine Cylinder #13 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1365-3
Engine Cylinder #14 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1365-4
Engine Cylinder #14 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1366-3
Engine Cylinder #15 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1366-4
Engine Cylinder #15 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1367-3
Engine Cylinder #16 Knock Level : Voltage Above Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 
1367-4
Engine Cylinder #16 Knock Level : Voltage Below Normal 
The ISM detects signal voltage that is not in the acceptable range.
The code is logged. 

Background Information

Detonation sensors are on the upper cylinder block between every two cylinders. Each sensor monitors two adjacent cylinders. For example, one sensor monitors cylinders 1 and 3 and one sensor monitors cylinders 2 and 4.



Illustration 1g03845561

The Integrated Sensing Module (ISM) supplies 8 VDC to power the sensors. The detonation sensors provide electrical signals to the module that indicate mechanical engine vibrations. Each sensor outputs an electrical signal. The signal is amplified and the signal is filtered. The frequency of the signal corresponds to the mechanical frequency of the vibrations. The amplitude of the signal is proportional to the intensity of the vibrations.

The ISM monitors the signals to determine the presence and the severity of the detonation. The ISM can retard the timing of the cylinders to limit detonation levels. The timing may be retarded for a single cylinder or for more than one cylinder. The timing may be retarded for all the cylinders, if necessary. If retardation of the timing does not sufficiently limit the detonation, the ISM will shut down the engine.

An ISM can retard timing by as few as three degrees for light detonation levels. The timing can be retarded up to six degrees for severe detonation. For most applications, the minimum allowable actual timing is ten degrees BTC (five degrees BTC for propane operation). A proportional strategy is used for advancing the timing after the timing has been retarded. The rate of advance is based upon the level of detonation. The rate is faster for lighter detonation. The fastest rate of proportional timing advance is one degree per minute.

The ISM will diagnose the detonation sensors for a signal that is shorted to the −Battery side, to the +Battery side, or for an open circuit. To avoid detecting vibrations that are not related to detonation, the ISM only monitors a detonation sensor when one of the pistons that is monitored by that sensor is between top center and 40 degrees after top center on the power stroke. Therefore, the “Block Tap” method of testing the detonation sensors cannot be performed on this engine.

An input from a detonation sensor that is diagnosed by an ISM as "open/shorted to +battery" may measure 0 VDC on a voltmeter. This is caused by the lack of pull-up resistors in the detonation sensor's circuits inside the ISM.

The ISM also supports related event codes when the levels of detonation warrant a reaction from the ISM. If the timing has been retarded by the maximum amount and the level of detonation remains high, the ISM will shut down the engine. Detonation protection is disabled when the engine speed is less than 250 rpm.

Logged diagnostic codes provide a historical record. Before you begin this procedure, use the Cat Electronic Technician (ET) to print the logged codes to a file.

The most likely causes of the diagnostic code are a poor connection or a problem in a wiring harness. The next likely cause is a problem with a sensor. The least likely cause is a problem with an ISM.

The troubleshooting procedure may generate additional diagnostic codes. Keep your mind on correcting the cause of the original diagnostic code. Clear the diagnostic codes after the problem is resolved.

The most likely cause of a code is a problem with an electrical connector or wiring. The least likely cause of a code is the ISM.



Illustration 2g03368682
Sensor connector
(Terminal A) Sensor supply
(Terminal B) Sensor return
(Terminal C) Signal

Table 2
Troubleshooting Test Steps  Values  Results 

1. Check for Codes

A. Connect Cat® Electronic Technician (ET) to the service tool connector.

B. Determine if a code is active or logged.
 

Codes
 

Result: A -3 code is active or logged.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

Result: A -4 code is active or logged.

Proceed to Test Step 3.
 

2. Create a Short at the Sensor Connector

A. Turn the main disconnect switch to the OFF position.

B. Disconnect the sensor with the active -3 code.

C. Install the jumper wire between the following terminals at the sensor connector:

- Terminal B (sensor return) and Terminal C (sensor signal)

D. Connect Cat ET.

E. Use Cat ET to monitor the following:

- -4 code

F. Turn the main disconnect switch to the OFF position.
 

Create a Short
 

Result: A -4 code did not become active.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: A -4 code becomes active.

Repair: The wiring harness is OK. Replace the sensor.

If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Test Step 4.
 

3. Create an Open at the Sensor Connector

A. Turn the main disconnect switch to the OFF position.

B. Disconnect the sensor with the active -4 code.

C. Connect Cat ET.

D. Use Cat ET to monitor the following:

- -3 code

E. Turn the main disconnect switch to the OFF position.
 

Create an Open
 

Result: A -3 code did not become active.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: A -3 code becomes active.

Repair: The wiring harness is OK. Replace the sensor.

If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Test Step 4.
 

4. Check the 8 VDC Supply Voltage at the Sensor Connector

A. Turn the main disconnect switch to the ON position.

B. Measure the voltage at the following terminal locations of the affected sensor connector:

- Terminal A (sensor supply) and Terminal B (sensor return)

C. Reconnect the sensor.
 

Supply Voltage
 

Result: The supply voltage is approximately 8.0 ± 0.2 VDC

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The supply voltage is not approximately 8.0 ± 0.2 VDC.

Repair: There is a short in the wiring harness to the battery. Repair or replace the wiring harness.

If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Test Step 5.
 

5. Check the Detonation Circuit for an Open

A. Turn the main disconnect switch to the OFF position.

B. Disconnect the sensor with the active code.

C. Disconnect the J2 connector at the ISM.

D. Measure the resistance between the following locations for the sensor:

- Terminal C (sensor connector) and the appropriate detonation signal wire on the ISM connector
 

Open Circuit
 

Result: Less than 10 ohms of resistance between the sensor connector and the ISM connector.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

Result: More than 10 ohms of resistance between the sensor connector and the ISM connector.

Repair: There is an open circuit in the wiring harness. Repair or replace the wiring harness.

If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Test Step 6.
 

6. Check the Detonation Circuit for a Short Circuit

A. Turn the main disconnect switch to the OFF position

B. Disconnect the sensor with the active code.

C. Disconnect the J2 connector at the ECM.

D. Measure the resistance between the following locations for the sensor:

- Terminal C (sensor connector) and Engine ground
 

Short Circuit
 

Result: There was more than 100 K ohms of resistance between Terminal C and engine ground.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

Result: There was less than 100 K ohms of resistance between Terminal C and engine ground.

Repair: There is a short circuit in the wiring harness. Repair or replace the wiring harness.

If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Test Step 7.
 

7. Check the Detonation Circuit for a Pin to Pin Short Circuit

A. Turn the main disconnect switch to the OFF position.

B. Disconnect the sensor with the active code.

C. Disconnect the J2 connector at the ECM.

D. Measure the resistance between the following locations for the sensor:

- Terminal C (sensor connector) and all ISM connector pins
 

Short Circuit
 

Result: There was more than 100 K ohms of resistance between the signal pin at the ISM and all other pins in the ISM connector.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: There was less than 100 K ohms of resistance between the signal pin at the ISM and all other pins in the ISM connector.

Repair: There is a short circuit in the wiring harness. Repair or replace the wiring harness

If the problem is not resolved, proceed to Test Step 8.
 

8. Perform the Wiggle Test

Carefully following this procedure is the best way to identify the root cause of an intermittent problem.

A. Turn the main disconnect switch to the ON position .

B. Connect Cat ET.

C. Use Cat ET to perform the following test:

- "Wiggle Test"

D. Slowly wiggle the wiring and the connectors between the P2 connector and the sensor. Pay particular attention to the wiring near each connector. Be sure to wiggle all of the wiring. As you wiggle the wiring look for the following problems:

- Loose connectors or damaged connectors
- Moisture on the connectors or the wiring
- Damaged that is caused by excessive heat
- Damage that is caused by chafing
- Improper routing of wiring
- Damaged insulation
 

Test
 

Result: The wiring failed the Wiggle Test.

Repair: There is a problem with the wiring harness. Repair or replace the wiring harness.

Verify that the repair eliminated the problem.

Result: The wiring passed the Wiggle Test.

The problem may be intermittent. Inspect the wiring. Refer to Troubleshooting, "Electrical Connectors - Inspect" for additional information.

Repair: Perform the following procedure:

1. Turn the main disconnect switch to the OFF position.

2. Disconnect the connectors. Carefully inspect the terminals for proper installation.

3. Insert a pin into each socket. Verify that each socket grips the pin firmly. Repair any problems.

4. Connect all connectors.

Verify that the repair eliminated the problem.
 

If the procedure did not correct the issue, contact your Cat dealer Technical Communicator (TC). For further assistance, your TC can confer with the Dealer Solutions Network (DSN).